THE APOSTLE TO THE
Wesleyan Methodist Sunday School
!leyan Book Depot, 4, Blackelt Place. Newcastle-on-1
* THERE IS NO REST, HE CRIES, BUT IN GOD. " [p. 12$.
Hpostle to tbe IRortb Hmerican 3nbian0
AUTHOR OF "BISHOP PATTESON," "SAMUEL CROWTHER,
"HENRY MARTYN," ETC., ETC.
" Brave witness for the Faith ! He spent his day,
In toils and perils oft, poor souls to save,
To point his Indians to the glorious Way,
The Truth, the Life, to rest beyond the grave ;
Then, having walked with God in peace, lay down.
Who shares Christ s cross receives the victor s crown.
S. W. P-ARTRIDGE & CO.
8 & 9 PATERNOSTER Row.
ACROSS the track of history the North American
Indian has left his trail, with ineffaceable prints
of blood. The romantic hero of fiction, the
obstruction of civilisation, we see the red-skin,
with his squaw and papooses, as a broken and
demoralised remnant of an untamed host, rapidly
retreating to those happy hunting-grounds of the
future, where the pale-faces harry never more. It has
been said by one who knows : " For the Indian in
too many instances, the gospel of bullets has been
preached more loudly than the Gospel of love." This
is lamentably true, and if it were the object of this
book to recite the history of this unhappy people,
much sinned against, however much sinning, a story
could be told which would or should make the ears
of the readers to tingle. These pages deal with a
time when insignificant hamlets of wooden shanties
occupied the creeks and clearings where great cities
are now established, and vast territories were almost
unexplored forests, held in fee by tribes of wild and
superstitious braves. This was the parish in which
Brainerd by deliberate choice and by evident Divine
appointment spent his bright and glorious life.
It will doubtless strike many readers how much
this man and Henry Martyn had in common. They
shared the same physical delicacy which cut short
their lives at a like age, and they were equally
distinguished by that constitutional sadness which
added a sober hue to a religious experience in itself
severe and grave. Leaving college, both early
responded to a call to missionary work, forsaking
friends, home, and prospects behind, to pioneer the
kingdom of heaven in distant lands. Martyn, how
ever, gave up the ghost in Persian solitudes, while
Brainerd came home to die amid his friends. The
character of Brainerd, too, had not the metaphysical
complexity of Martyn s mind, no love disappointment
had spoiled the music of his life, neither was the crown
of intellectual honours his temptation, for the only
noticeable fact about his college life is his expulsion
from Yale. But notwithstanding these and other
divergences, the two men were of the same mould,
and stand out clearly in the history of missionary
service, as brothers in feeling and action, though
separated by a century of years. Both have left to
the world a literary treasure in their letters and
diaries. Those of Henry Martyn are rightly adjudged
a classic, with scarcely a superior in English letters,
and those of David Brainerd, which first inspired
Martyn with missionary enthusiasm, are of equal
excellence. They severally reveal the heart of the
writer as nothing else could do. The strange fluctua
tions of spiritual feeling ; the unsparing and searching
introspective watchfulness ; the blend of spiritual
travail and inspiring faith ; the soul now hiding wing
less in the grass of abasement, then fluttering with
sweetest carol in the blue of heaven.
No apology need surely be offered for the frequent
quotations in these pages from Brainerd s remarkable
journal. When John Wesley, who lived nearer to
Brainerd s day than we, and had personal knowledge
of the Indians, was anxious to preserve the zeal of his
people, he put to his Conferences this question :
" What can be done in order to revive the work of
God where it is decayed ? " answering it with the
emphatic counsel, " Let every preacher read carefully
over the life of David Brainerd." This advice is not out
of date to-day, and it would be well if every divinity
student, and all Sunday-school teachers, kept well
before them the stimulating thoughts of this patient
well-doer in the kingdom of God.
If it should be asked what were the characteristics
of Brainerd which made him such a helpful study to
his successors, they may be readily summed up.
He was a man of one grand idea, that of saving
souls. The whole force of his nature focussed here,
he lived to serve his God, and in every page of his
journal we find the same quenchless thirst after the
ingathering of these poor savages to the kingdom of
grace. Lest anything should hinder him in this
Divine quest, he was ever on the watch to divest him
self of any allurements which might stand in rivalry
and betray his heart.
He believed intensely in the existence of the
Author of Evil and a place of punishment for all who
serve him. There was no enervating tepidity about
his views on points of doctrine, his audiences always
were to him a number of immortal souls more or less
under Satanic jurisdiction and needing the only
remedy, that of the cleansing blood of Jesus Christ
He was the disciple of discipline, not only by being
in perils oft, and suffering hardships enough to daunt
the most heroic, but his own heart had been purged
of self-love and crucified in its affections and lusts.
His spiritual experiences, judging from his own words
about them, must have been fierce and cleansing fires.
He was, as all Christ s true men and women must
be, mighty in prayer. It was his habit to spend long
nights in the dark forests, with strong cryings to God,
a very wrestling with the Almighty for the salvation
of sinners. His whole life seems to have been divided
between preaching and prayer, hastening to the woods
after some discouragement to meet his Lord for
renewal of faith and confidence, or, with a whole
heartful of thanksgiving casting himself on the ground
and crying, " Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but
unto Thy name be the glory."
He was also a man of sympathy. With all the
awakening faithfulness of his ministry, he had ever a
tender solicitude for his "poor Indians," comforting
them when in tears, and bravely standing up for them
where he saw the white man oppressing or defrauding
them. Their children loved and trusted him, and ran
to listen to his words.
Above all he was a man who lived very near to
Christ. Although often bewailing his coldness of
heart and languor of love, one cannot help feeling
that this man knew his Lord with reverent intimacy,
and walked with Him, until the Divine hand opened
the gate of everlasting bliss for His servant to enter,
and go no more out for ever. Such high communion
this man had, such glorious revelations of his Master s
presence, that his path through the dreary solitudes
of forest and wilderness became hallowed ground.
If the reading of Brainerd s life teaches nothing else,
it will not fail to impress every one with a profound
sense of what a consecrated man may be and do.
Contact with such a character is inspiration, and to
know his heart is to enter a sanctuary.
HIS FORERUNNER IN THE FIELD, . . . . .II
THE PURITAN YOUTH,
THE STUDENT EXPELLED, .
AMONG THE WIGWAMS,
FAINT, YET PURSUING,
AFTER MANY DAYS, 68
A REVIVAL IN SUSQUEHANNAH, ... 78
THE LIGHT SPREADS, 88
A GRATEFUL REVIEW, 99
THE SANDS RUNNING OUT, log
THE DAY DRAWS TO A CLOSE, 1 19
SWEEPING THROUGH THE GATES, 133
THE WORK DONE AND BEING DONE, . . 150
HIS FORERUNNER IN THE FIELD.
" I will send a Prophet to you,
A Deliverer of the nations
Who shall guide you and shall teach you,
Who shall toil and suffer with you.
If you listen to his counsels,
You will multiply and prosper ;
If his warnings pass unheeded,
You will fade away and perish ! "
Longfellow s "Hiawatha"
HTM1E North American Red Indian in his sprayed
feathers and moccasins forms a conspicuous
J[ and well - known figure in the stones with
which the young people on both sides of the
Atlantic are familiar. He has always held a position
12 DAVID BRAINERD.
of respectability compared with other wild men of the
woods living a life of freedom and sport, brave in
conflict, solemn in council over the pipe of peace,
fond of his squaw and the little red youngsters who
gamboled at the door of his wigwam, a mighty hunter,
and yet pausing in the prairie solitudes to kneel in
the presence of the Great Spirit ; such is the Indian of
literature. Perhaps the picture has been drawn a
little fancifully, possibly the cruel torturing nature,
the sly cunning, and the treachery of the warpath
have not been truthfully disclosed, but in many
respects the redskin was once, if he is not to-day, a
noble savage with many fine characteristics, having a
nature capable under Divine culture of many grand
possibilities. Unhappily the white man has not
improved the red man, except where the former has
carried the message of the Cross, and by this time
devastating wars and drink, the dreadful scourge of
all the nations, has reduced this fine race of braves to
a miserable group of exiles on their own land.
The story which is to be told in the following
pages is of the early history of the Red Indians, and
of one who gave himself up to the work of preaching
the Gospel to them, and pointing them to heaven.
The better however to understand what led up to the
work which Brainerd took in hand so nobly, a brief
glance at the experience of the earlier missionaries
will not be out of place.
Although the gallant admirals of Queen Elizabeth
in their visits to the newly discovered shores of
America did not altogether neglect the Christian
teaching of the natives with whom they came in
contact, it cannot be said that mission work began with
any enthusiasm until the seventeenth century, when
religious intolerance drove the Pilgrim Fathers from
their native land to seek a home in New England,
where they might worship God according to the
dictates of their own conscience. As will be seen
later on, it was in the Mayflower, or one of the other
HIS FORERUNNER IN THE FIELD. 13
ships of the Puritan refugees, that the ancestors of
David Brainerd sailed for the new home across the
But the first missionary was John Eliot, once a
young schoolmaster in an Essex village, who in the
year 1646 had gained the confidence of the Indians
amongst whom he had taken up his abode, and suc
ceeded in mastering their language, and constructing
a grammar thereof, which has since been of much
service to his successors. He worked with great
industry in their cause, and actually secured so much
interest and support in England, that the House of
Commons and the Universities of Oxford and Cam
bridge contributed money freely for his enterprise.
With this he bought land, built towns, founded a
sort of Commonwealth like his own country had at
home, and got the Indian Christians to express publicly
their confessions, and testify to their faithful belief
in the new religion. A very curious book he wrote,
called "Tears of Repentance," dedicating it in this
wise to Oliver Cromwell : "What the Jews once said
of their centurion, he loved our nation, and built us a
synagogue, the same may be affirmed upon a more
noble accompt of your Lordship, and of those faithful
centurions and soldiers under your control," etc.
The work is now very rare, and as the original volume,
in strange old type, and queer spelling, on yellow
faded leaves, lies before the present writer, he cannot
forbear making a quotation of some of the experi
ences of those very earliest labourers, as told by John
Eliot, under the title " The Day-Breaking, if not the
Sun-Rising of the Gospel with the Indians in New
After the Gospel had been preached, we read :
" They told us they were troubled, but they could not
tell what to fay to it, what mould comfort them ; hee
therefore, who fpake to them at firft, concluded with a
dolefull defcription (fo farre as his ability to fpeake in that
14 DAVID BRAINERD.
tongue would carry him), of the trembling and mourning
condition of every foul that dies in fmne, and that mail be
caft out of favour with God. Thus after three houres
time thus fpent with them, wee afked them if they were
not weary, and they anfwered no. But we refolved to
leave them with an appetite ; the chiefe of them, feeing
us conclude with prayer, deflred to know when wee
would come againe, fo we appointed the time, and having
given their children ibme apples, and the men fome
tobacco, and what elfe we then had in hand, they defired
fome more ground to build a towne together, which we
did much like of, promifmg to fpeake for them to the
generall court, that they might poffefs all the compafs of
the hill upon which their wigwams then flood, and fo wee
departed, with many welcoms from them."
HIS FORERUNNER IN THE FIELD. 15
Then, after a time, John Eliot and his companions
visit the Indians again on the nth of November,
1646, and having spoken once more upon the Christian
faith, pause to see the effect of their words upon the
ring of red-skinned listeners.
" The firft queftion was fuddenly propounded by an
old man then prefent, who, hearing faith and repentance
preacht upon them to find falvation by Jefus Chrift, hee
afked whether it was not too late for fuch an old man as
hee, who was neare death, to repent or feek after God ?
This queftion affected us not a little with compaflion,
and we held forth to him the Bible, and told him what
God faid in it concerning fuch as are hired at the eleventh
houre of the day ; wee told him, alfo, that if a father had
a fonne that had beene difobedient many yeares, yet if, at
laft, that fonne fall down upon his knees, and weepe and
defire his father to love him, his father is fo merciful that
hee will readily forgive and love him, fo we faid it was
much more with God, who is a more merciful Father to
thofe whom he hath made fo. . . . Having thus fpent
the whole afternoon, and night being almost come upon
us, confidering that the Indians formerly defired to know
how to pray, and did thinke that Jefus Chrift did not
underftand Indian language, one of us therefore propofed
to pray in their owne language, and did fo for about a
quarter of an hour together, wherein divers of them held
upeies and hands whenever all of them (af we underftood
afterwards), underftanding the fame, and one of them I
caft my eyes upon was hanging doune his head, with his
rug before his eyes, weeping ; at firft I feared it was for
lome forenefs of his eyes, but lifting up his head againe,
having wiped his eyes (as not defirous to be feene), 1
eafily perceived his eyes were not fore, yet fomewhat red
with crying ; and fo held up his head for a while, yet
luch was the prefence and mighty power of the Lord
Jefus in his heart that hee hung down his head againe, and
covered his eyes againe, and fo fell wiping and wiping of
them, weeping abundantly, continuing thus till prayer
16 DAVID BRAINERD.
was ended ; after which hee prefently turnes from us, and
turnes his face to a fide, and corner of the wigwam, and
there fals aweeping more abundantly by himfelfe, which
one of us perceiving, went up to him, and fpake to him
encouraging words, at the hearing of which hee fell
a-weeping more and more, fo leaving him he who fpake
to him came unto mee (being newly gone out of the
wigwam), and tolde mee of his teares, fo we resolved to
goe againe both of us to him, and fpeake to him againe,
and we met him comming out of the wigwam, and there
we fpake againe to him, and he there fell into a more
abundant renewed weeping, like one inwardly and deeply
affected indeed, which forced us alfo to fuch bowels of
companion that wee could not forbear weeping over him
alfo, and fo we parted, greatly rejoicing for fuch fowing."
In due time Eliot obtained such influence over the
Indians, that he persuaded them to abandon their
roving life, and settle in a town which was built under
his direction and called " Noonatomen," which is
Indian for " Rejoicing." He framed laws, not unlike
those which prevailed in Puritan England at home,
and translated the works of Baxter and other sound
divines of that age for them to read. Subsequently,
the town of Nantick, on the Charles River, was
founded in 1651, and on a solemn fast-day he
gathered the Indians together, and, like Moses speak
ing to the Children of Israel, he exhorted them to
serve the Lord. But then as now, civilisation brought
some evils in its train, and the terrible effects of
strong drink were so manifest, that neither whipping
nor heavy fines could restrict its traders, of whose
business Eliot spoke as follows : " These scandalous
evils greatly blemish and intercept their entertain
ment of the Gospel, through the policy of Satan, who
counter-worketh Christ that way, with not a little
Eliot was at this time the pastor of Roxbury, and
endeavoured to raise a native ministry, sending to
HIS FORERUNNER IN THE FIELD. I/
college two young converted Indians, who, however,
never lived to be useful in the work. The Puritan
missionary, therefore, had to labour single-handed, and
the unremitting nature of his travelling and preach
ing may be told in his own words, where he says in a
letter : " I have not been dry night nor day, from the
third day of the week to the sixth, but have travelled
from place to place m that condition, and at night I
pull off my boots and wring my stockings, and on
with them again, and so continue. The rivers also
have raised, so that we were wet in riding through
them. But God steps in and helps me. I have con
sidered the exhortation of Paul to his son Timothy,
1 Endure hardness as a good soldier of Jesus Christ/
with many other such like meditations."
Great trouble, however, came upon those " praying
Indians," as they were called, for an influential chief
managed to incite the various tribes against the
English settlers, and a terrible onslaught was made
upon the white men and their families, farms were
ruthlessly burnt, and the people, including the help
less children, brutally murdered. Then came the
inevitable reprisals ; the Government sent the military
to avenge those outrages, and although the Christian
natives had, with few exceptions, kept aloof from
their fanatical comrades, and stood loyal to their
friends, they were suspected of complicity and had to
pay the penalty. It was a bitter experience for Eliot,
now an aged man, to see the very Indian towns
which he had established broken up, and this too
carried on with relentless violence by the whites, who
drove the Christian natives into hiding, and destroyed
the work which the patient industry and endurance of
many years had built up.
But this man was the grand pioneer of Christian
missionary work among the Indians, and although he
closed his career amid circumstances of much discour
agement, John Eliot will always be remembered as bear
ing, not without tears and weariness, the brunt of the
1 8 DAVID BRAINERD.
battle for the Cross, and making, like John the Baptist,
a highway for the spread of the Gospel of the Lord
Jesus Christ among the wild redskins of the New World.
Just two hundred years ago, as the flowers of the
early summer were blooming, and the foliage of the
Indian forest had burst forth into freshest green, this
eminent saint of God lay dying. His thoughts
were all for the Indians, and the work he loved so
well. Here are his last words : " There is a dark
cloud upon the work of the Gospel among them.
The Lord revive and prosper that work, and grant
that it may live when I am dead. It is a work that
I have been doing much and long about. But what
was the word I spoke last ? I recall that word my
doings. Alas ! they have been poor and small and
lean doings, and I will be the man who will throw
the first stone at them aH. . . . Welcome joy ! Come,
Lord, come ! "
God was not unmindful of the prayer of his servant,
and within twenty years of his death a boy was born
who was destined to take up the gracious labour he
laid down, and whose life and work will be the theme
of the following pages. But before restoring from
the mist of past years the living figure and the brave
deeds of his successor, it is fitting that we linger for
one moment more over John Eliot s message and the
fruits seen after many days. Once more turning over
the pages of that ancient volume which survives, a
pathetic memento, the wreck of more than two
centuries, we catch sight of the last of those confes
sions or testimonies which he noted down from the
lips of the North American Indians, the simple heart
felt utterance of those who had found in Christ a
Saviour. It refers to the two little Indian children,
three years old, whose father had already expressed
his faith in the Lord Jesus. There is scarcely a more
affecting incident in the literature of missions, and
here, in John Eliot s own words, after so many years,
the story, for the first time, shall be told :
HIS FORERUNNER IN THE FIELD. Ip
" This Spring, in the beginning of the year 1652, the
Lord was pleafed to affect fundry of our praying Indians
with a grievous difease, whereof fome with great torments
in their bowels died, among which were two little children
of the age above-said, and at that time both in one house,
being together taken with this difeafe. The first of thefe
Children in the extremities of its torments lay crying to
God in thefe words, " God and Jefus Chrifl, God and Jefus
Chrift, help me" and when they gave it anything to eat, it
would greedily take it (as it is ufual at the approach of
Deathe) but firft it would cry to God, " O God and Jefus
Chrift, blefs it" and then it would take it ; and in this
manner it lay calling upon God and Jefus Chrift untill it
died. The mother of this child alfo died of that difeafe,
at that time. The father of the child told me this
ftory, with great wonderment at the grace of God, in
teaching his child fo to call upon God. The name of
the father is Nifhohkon, whose confeflion you have
u Three or four days after, another child in the fame
houfe, fick of the fame difeafe was (by a Divine hand
doubtlefs) fenfible of the approach of death (an unufual
thing at that age) and called to its Father and faid
c Father^ I am going to GodJ feveral times repeating it,
c / am going to God The Mother (as other mothers ufed
to do) had made for the Child a little Bafket, a little
Spoon, and a little Tray, thefe things the Child was
wont to be greatly delighted withal (as all children
will) therefore, in the extremity of the torments they fet
those things before it to divert the mind and cheer the
fpirit, but now the child takes the Bafket and puts it
away and faid, / will leave my Bajket behind me for I am
going to God, I will leave my Spoon and Tray behind me
(putting thefe away) for I am going to God : and with
thefe kind of expreffions the fame night finifhed its courfe
" The Father of this child is Robert Speen^ whofe
confeffions you have before, and in one of them he maketh
mention of this child that died in Faith. When he
2O DAVID BRAINERD.
related this ftory to me, he faid he could riot tell whether
the forrow for the death of his child or the joy for its faith
were greater when it died "
" These examples," adds Eliot, "are a testimony that
they teach their children the knowledge and fear of
God, whom they now call upon, and also that the
Spirit of God co-worketh with their instructions, who
teacheth by man more than man is able to do." With
this sweet fragment, we bid John Eliot farewell.
In noting down for us the heartfelt testimony of
these Indian converts, he has indeed taught us how
the Spirit of God " teacheth by man more than man
is able to do." These stalwart natives, drawn from
their dark superstitions and ignorance to a know
ledge of the true God, like Peter, are ready to declare
unto their brethren how the Lord hath brought
them out of prison. Their simplicity and childlike
faith are beautiful characteristics, and the veteran
missionary is not slow to appreciate them. The
good old man, who looks from a portrait before us, of
grave aspect, with solid and determined countenance
not unlike the Lord Protector himself, his wavy hair
falling upon the broad white Puritan collar, and with
his old-fashioned bulky Bible in his hand, we see him
standing by the wigwams, while the Indians, in
attitudes of deep attention, spread themselves about
him listening to his words. The little brown children
venture near him and catch the name of Jesus, as the
retreating sunlight fills the forest with a shadowy
silence. The scene fast fades, the mist of many years
rolls up again, blots out the group of listeners, blurrs
the overarching trees, and again noiselessly envelops
in oblivion the figure of the preacher, whose voice
just now we could almost fancy we hear. For a
moment it all was vivid to us, a breathing human
group, and the other vision too of the little sufferers
in their wigwams calling on God and Christ and
putting their toys aside, because they were going to
HIS FORERUNNER IN THE FIELD. 21
Him. Was it not all so real, so living, so heart-
reaching? We will not willingly let the picture be
dissolved in forgetfulness. Rather will we cherish its
memory and keep it as a background as our eyes now
turn to the approaching figure of a tall, spare young
man with eyes lustrous and sad, DAVID BRAINERD,
THE APOSTLE OF THE INDIANS.
" Lord, give the word ; and waked by Thee,
Let many tongues Thy victory tell,
That hopeless sinners may now see
That Thou hast vanquished Death and Hell ;
Sound, sound the joyful truth abroad ;
Let sinners now draw nigh to God.
And Thou victorious Lord all hail !
Immortal honours deck Thy brow.
When Death and Hell Thy friends assail
They find in Thee a refuge now ;
Thy name shall furnish them with arms,
And free their souls from all alarms."
THE PURITAN YOUTH.
" O Lord ! that I could waste my life for others
With no ends of my own,
That I could pour myself into my brothers
And live for them alone !
" Such was the life Thou triedst, self abjuring,
Thine own pains never easing,
Our burdens bearing, our just doom enduring,
A life without self-pleasing." Frederick W. Faber.
"r I "A H E men of the Mayflower" has become a phrase
in the history of our country which will not be
JL easily forgotten. It marks a period when the
intolerance of a foolish king drove from the
shores of the old country those Puritans of sturdy
piety who were destined to found another England
across the sea. Thus the keel of the little Mayflower
carried the future destinies of that mighty Anglo-
Saxon commonwealth, which shares not only our
THE PURITAN YOUTH. 23
speech, but our love for the Bible, and a desire for the
evangelisation of the world.
It is not clear, from the vague data of his ancestry
upon which we have to rely, whether the forefathers
of David Brainerd actually sailed from England in
the Mayflower, but there can be no doubt about the
fact that his great grandfather on his mother s side,
the Rev. Peter Hobart, was at one time a minister of
the Gospel at Hingham in the county of Norfolk,
and in consequence of the persecution of the Puritans,
did take ship, and remove with his family to New
England where he formed another church, and called
the settlement after the name of the village from
which he had been driven in the old land. It is also
clear that his grandmother was the daughter of
another Puritan divine, the Rev. Samuel Whiting,
also an Eastern counties man, for he ministered at
Boston in Lincolnshire, before he in turn left for the
shores of New England and founded the town of
Lynn in Massachusetts. Thus we see of what stock
he sprang, and the old theology of the Puritans clung
to him all through life. It is difficult now to under
stand, and still more to appreciate, the strict and
unlovely discipline of a child s training in those far off
days. There is every reason to believe, that at a very
early age the mind of the boy David was cast in a
serious, and what appears to us, an unnaturally solemn
mould. His father, Hezekiah Brainerd, who at the time
of David s birth, the 2Oth of April, 1718, was living at
Haddam, Hartford, in the new colony of Connecticut,
died when the boy was only a child, and was speedily
followed by the mother, so that the family were left
orphans very early. David was the third of the four
sons, and like Henry Martyn seems to have inherited
a delicacy of constitution, with a strong predisposition
to consumption, from which disease one of his
brothers died. How far this hereditary ill-health
predisposed him to a melancholy turn we can only
conjecture ; certain it is that David, at a time when
other boys are full of games and boisterous play, was
a mournful little lad. He tells us in the diary, in that
portion of it which was fortunately preserved after his
death, a little about his feelings at this time, and no
words can better describe these days and his conver
sion in childhood than his own.
" I was from my youth," says he, " somewhat sober
and inclined rather to melancholy than the contrary
extreme; but do not remember anything of conviction
of sin, worthy of remark, till I was, I believe, about
seven or eight years of age. Then I became con
cerned for my soul, and terrified at the thoughts of
death, and was driven to the performance of duties,
but it appeared a melancholy business, that destroyed
my eagerness for play. And though, alas ! this
religious concern was short-lived, I sometimes attended
secret prayer, and thus lived at ease in Zion, without
God in the world, and without much concern, as
I remember, till I was about thirteen years of age.
"But, sometime in the winter 1732, 1 was roused out
THE PURITAN YOUTH. 2$
of carnal security by I scarce know what means at
first ; but was much excited by the prevailing of a
mortal sickness in Haddam. I was frequent, constant,
and somewhat fervent in duties, and took delight in
reading, especially Mr. Janeway s * Token for Child
ren. I felt sometimes much inclined to duties, and
took great delight in the performance of them, and
I sometimes hoped that I was converted, or at least
in a good and hopeful way for heaven and happiness,
not knowing what conversion was. The Spirit of God
at this time proceeded far with me; I was remarkably
dead to the world, and my thoughts were almost
wholly employed about my soul s concerns and I may
indeed say * Almost I was persuaded to be a Christ
ian. I was also exceedingly distressed and melan
choly at the death of my mother in March, 1732.
But afterwards my religious concern began to decline
and by degrees I fell back into a considerable degree
of security, though I still attended secret prayer."
The boy already seemed to be haunted with that
self-condemnation and unsettlement of trust which
were the characteristics of the Calvinist experience ot
his day. He had the fear of death before his eyes,
and felt that the best way to obtain peace and free
dom from his terrors was immersing himself in a
round of duties, some, no doubt, of a painful character,
in order to wean himself from love of self and of the
world. Such methods, however, could not possibly
have the desired result, and with his father and mother
both removed to another world, he seems to have had
none to point him to " a more excellent way." He
grew up in the same mood, condemning himself
roundly for the slightest pleasure, and in a most
literal sense " working out his own salvation with
fear and trembling." Nearly sixteen now, the follow
ing is the retrospect of his experience, recorded in his
"About the I5th of April, 1733, 1 removed from my
father s house to East Haddam where I spent four
26 DAVID BRAINERD.
years, but still without God in the world though for
the most part I went a round of secret duty. I was
not much addicted to young company, or frolicking, as
it is called, but this I know, when I did go into such
company, I never returned with so good a conscience
as when I went, it always added new guilt, made me
afraid to come to the throne of grace, and spoilt those
good frames I was wont sometimes to please myself
with. But, alas ! all my good frames were but self-
righteousness, not founded on a desire for the glory
" About the latter end of April, 1737, being full nine
teen years of age, I removed to Durham to work on
my farm, and so continued about one year, frequently
longing from a natural inclination after a liberal
education. When about twenty years of age I applied
myself to study, and was now engaged more than ever
in the duties of religion. I became very strict and
watchful over my thoughts, words, and actions, and
thought I must be sober indeed, because I designed
to devote myself to the ministry, and imagined I did
dedicate myself to the Lord/
Although still profoundly dissatisfied with himself,
and suspecting every little emotion of pleasure as a
temptation to self-righteousness, David Brainerd con
tinued to pursue a round of religious exercises and
duties. He went in April, 1738, to live with Mr. Fiske,
who was the minister at Hacldam, Hartford, Connecti
cut, and this good man urged David to withdraw alto
gether from the society of other young men, so that he
might devote himself without distraction to the study
of holy things. In less than a year he had read the
Bible twice through, gave the utmost attention to the
preaching of the Gospel, and snatched every moment
he could for secret prayer and self-examination. This
earnest seeking after God soon made him yearn for
the fellowship of others like-minded, and just as
Wesley met with his fellow-students to pray and hold
sacred converse under the college walls at Oxford, we
THE PURITAN YOUTH. 27
find Brainerd every Sunday evening gathering with
a number of earnest young men to worship and glorify
their common Lord. Lest he should lose sight of the
truths which he heard, it was his custom to commit the
discourse of the day to memory, and repeat the same
when alone, sometimes at midnight hour. Such a young
man one would think might be credited with a sincere
zeal and a pious mind, yet, Brainerd we find still be
wailing himself. This is his own comment on all
these religious observances : " I had a very good out
side and rested entirely on my duties, though not
sensible of it After Mr. Fiske s death I proceeded
in my learning with my brother ; was still very con
stant in religious duties, and often wondered at the
levity of professors ; it was a trouble to me that they
were so careless in religious matters. Thus I pro
ceeded a considerable length on a self-righteous foun
dation and should have been entirely lost and undone
had not the mere mercy of God prevented."
Much of the experience of Brainerd at this time
was very like that of John Bunyan, who in his walks
abroad was constantly tempted of Satan, and lived
in perpetual fear and awe of God. The mind of
David Brainerd seems to have been perpetually set
on " frames and feelings," he looks with fearful interest
into the pool of his heart s experience, and sees there
nothing but unrest and buffeting waves, which also
could in no degree reflect the image of his Saviour.
To such an extent did this poor young man worry
himself, that he looked upon nature and wished from
his inmost soul that he also could be free of this
terrible burden of spiritual responsibility. Thus he
writes in his private diary :
" Sometime in the beginning of winter 1738 it
pleased God on one Sabbath morning, as I was walk
ing out for some secret duties, to give me on a sudden
such a sense of my danger, and the wrath of God,
that I stood amazed, and my former good frames
that I had pleased myself with, all presently vanished.
From the view I had of my sin and vileness I was
much distressed all that day, fearing the vengeance
of God would soon overtake me. I was much
dejected, kept much alone, and sometimes envied the
birds and beasts their happiness, because they were
not exposed to eternal misery as I evidently saw I
was. And thus I lived from day to day being fre-:"
quently in great distress, sometimes there appeared
mountains before me to obstruct my hopes of mercy,
and the work of conversion appeared so great that I
HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT, IN BRAINERD S DAY.
thought I should never be the subject of it I used,
however, to pray and cry to God and perform other
duties with great earnestness, and thus hoped by
some means to make the case better."
For a long time Brainerd continued under this
cloud ; here and there a break occurred, speedily to be
drowned in darkness, for, like many a sincere but
wretched man since his day, poor Brainerd vexed his
soul with doubts as to whether he stood among the
elect or not. A voice, he says, seemed to cry in his
ears, "It is done, it is done, for ever impossible to
THE PURITAN YOUTH. 29
deliver yourself, " and he also tells us he got thinking
upon God s sovereignty until he shuddered as "a
poor trembling creature to venture off some high
At last, however, light came, the light of assurance,
and Brainerd was for the first time filled with
unspeakable joy. The occasion seems to have been
almost a vision, for the Lord vouchsafed him a
glorious manifestation of His presence. He notes the
day very carefully, the I2th of July, 1739, a Sunday
evening, the close of a week of exceeding wretched
ness, and he had, as was his wont, gone out into some
solitary spot, far from men, to commune with his God.
The remarkable occurrence which followed, and
which may be considered the hour of his conversion,
cannot be told better than in his own words :
" Having been thus endeavouring to pray though
as I thought very stupid and senseless for near half-
an-hour, then as I was walking in a dark thick grove,
unspeakable glory seemed to open to the view and
apprehension of my soul. I do not mean any exter
nal brightness, for I saw no such thing, nor do I
intend any imagination of any body of light some
where in the third heavens or anything of that nature,
but it was a new inward apprehension or view that I
had of God, such as I never had before, nor anything
which had the least resemblance of it. I stood still,
wondered and admired ! I knew that I never had
seen before anything comparable to it for excellency
and beauty, it was widely different from all the con
ceptions that ever I had of God or things Divine.
I had no particular apprehension of any one Person
in the Trinity, either the Father, the Son, or the
Holy Ghost, but it appeared to be Divine glory. My
soul rejoiced with joy unspeakable to see such a God,
such a glorious Divine Being, and I was inwardly
pleased and satisfied that He should be God over all
for ever and ever. My soul was so captivated and
delighted with the excellency, loveliness, greatness,
3O DAVID BRAINERD.
and other perfections of God, that I was even
swallowed up in Him, at least to that degree that
I had no thought that I remember at first about my
own salvation, and scarce reflected that there was
such a creature as myself."
This moment of exceeding glory marks the spirit
ual starting point of David Brainerd, although the
peace was not of sustained duration, and the radiance
was soon bedimmed with gathering clouds again.
We shall, indeed, in following the chequered history
of his after-life, catch, from time to time, glimpses of
this grey melancholy, this pious gloom, which he
seemed to almost cherish as part of his dismal creed.
It would be scarcely sufficient to describe his spiritual
experience as April weather for the transitions were
oftentimes from bleak November gloom into the
warmth and sunny blaze of June, and back again. In
his subsequent travels over the Indian wilderness, the
lonely man seems to have felt how this depressing and
stormy environment had its reflection and counterpart
in the tempests within his own breast. But even
when the shadows gathered thickest about his feet,
there was above him a bit of blue, a stream of Divine
light showing him that in exceeding weakness there
was strength and grace sufficient for his need.
The Calvinistic severity of the Puritanic creed so
often repels us with the joyless aspect of its experience;
and yet, though the tree seems flowerless, it has its
roots in a firm faith in God, and bore fruits of heroic
endurance and righteousness. In reading this old
diary of Brainerd the wonder rises whether this man
was really so spiritually depressed as he appears by
his own account, or if it is possible that this testa
ment of his inner life tells rather the tale of what he
felt than what he was. However that may be, the
spiritual manifestation just recorded was a real thing
to David Brainerd ; henceforth he seems to more fre
quently lose sight of self, poor, unsatisfactory, and
ever troublesome self, and his thoughts centre more
THE PURITAN YOUTH. 31
upon the will of God, and his own responsibility in
doing the same. That sweet New England singer of
our day, John Greenleaf Whittier, in one of his frag
ments of verse, expresses what maybe was the heart-
feeling of Brainerd at this time :
" There let me strive with each besetting sin,
Recall my wandering fancies, and restrain
The sore disgust of a restless brain ;
And as the path of duty is made plain,
May grace be given that I may walk therein ;
Not like the hireling, for his selfish gain,
With backward glances, and reluctant tread,
Making a merit of his coward deed ;
But cheerful, with light around me thrown,
Walking as one to pleasant service led,
Doing God s will as if it were my own,
Yet trusting not in mine but in His strength alone ! "
THE STUDENT EXPELLED.
" Shine, my only day-star, shine,
So mme eyes shall wake by thine ;
So the dreams I grope in now
To clear visions all shall grow ;
So my day shall measured be
By Thy grace s charity ;
So shall I discern the path
My sweet love prescribed hath ;
For Thy ways cannot be shown
By any light but by Thine own." J. Beaumont,
WHEN the time came for David Brainerd to
enter Yale College at New Haven, he pre
pared himself for the step with many mis
givings. He felt that in the society of so
many young men he might not be able to maintain
his Christian profession ; or, at any rate, enjoy those
seasons of secret communion which had been so
precious to him at Haddam. These anticipations
fortunately were not realised ; but, on the whole,
THE STUDENT EXPELLED. 33
his college career was far from being an agreeable
He had been scarcely six months at Yale before
an epidemic of measles attacked the students, and
Brainerd was sent home very ill indeed. The disease
took a severe course in his case, and for days his
friends despaired of his life. But his time was not
yet ; God had yet a work for him to do, and he was
immortal until its accomplishment. He was pleased
to find that such a nearness to the grave produced in
his mind no fears of death, and his sick-bed became
the place of much gracious meditation on the provi
dence of God. On his recovery, he returned to
College, and was so anxious to make up for lost time
that he began to suspect " that, by reason of hard and
close studies, and being much exposed on account of
my freshmanship, I had but little time for spiritual
duties, my soul often mourned for want of more
time and opportunity to be alone with God." He
began to doubt, as Henry Martyn did after him,
whether this direction of energy upon his examina
tions, and studious work, was not possibly antago
nistic to his proper regard for the law of the Lord.
" Though, indeed, my ambition in my studies greatly
wronged the activity and vigour of my spiritual life,
yet this was usually the case with me, that in the
multitude of my thoughts within me, God s comforts
principally delighted my soul, these were my greatest
consolations day by day."
The next event which from Brainerd s point of view
acted prejudicially to him at the college was, strange
to say, a great spiritual awakening among the
students. In this it is evidently shown that he took
a zealous part, but Jonathan Edwards, who edits his
private journal, is careful to point out that " Yet he was
afterwards abundantly sensible that his religious expe
riences and affections at that time were not free from
a corrupt mixture, nor his conduct to be acquitted
from many things which were imprudent and blame-
34 DAVID BRAINERD.
able, which he greatly lamented himself, and was
desirous that others should not make an ill use of
such an example. And therefore, though at the time
he kept a constant diary, containing a very particular
account of what passed from day to day, for the next
thirteen months from the latter end of January, 1741,
forementioned in two small books which he called
the first two volumes of his diary, next following the
account before given of his convictions, conversion and
consequent comforts, yet when he lay on his death
bed, he gave orders (unknown to me till after his
death) that these two volumes should be destroyed,
and in the beginning of the third book of his diary he
writes thus, The two preceding volumes immediately
following the account of the author s conversion are
lost. If any are desirous of knowing how the author
lived in general during that space of time, let them
read the first thirty pages of this volume, where they
will find something of a specimen of his ordinary
manner of living through the whole space of that
time which was about thirteen months, excepting
that here he was more refined from some imprudences
and indecent heats than there, but the spirit of
devotion running through the whole was the same. "
An evangelical revival of religion was more uncom
mon and less understood in those days than now, and
from what his biography further states on the subject,
the principal temptation upon which Brainerd reflects
with such shame, was a zeal which was not seemly for
one "who was not only young in years, but very
young in religion and experience." It seems as
though the enthusiasm of the young freshman was
scarcely viewed with favour by his sedate superiors
who probably held aloof from the results of the
religious awakening which was stirring the college.
Possibly Brainerd did no more harm than allow him
self to be carried away on a stream of spiritual
impulse for which he would have been commended
in our day. The sum total of his offence is
THE STUDENT EXPELLED. 35
expressed in this sentence from the pen of Jonathan
" In these disadvantageous circumstances Brainerd
had the unhappiness to have a tincture of that intem
perate, indiscreet zeal which was at that time too
prevalent, and was misled, from his high opinion of
others whom he looked upon as better than himself,
into such errors as were really contrary to the habitual
temper of his mind."
Poor Brainerd ! The pale-faced young man, worn
by watchings and self-discipline, catches fire at this
sudden flaming up of spiritual concern amongst his
fellows at the college, sees in the movement a way for
the glory of God, takes active part in the meetings for
prayer and praise, actually gets excited possibly, and
so far forgets himself in his burning zeal for souls as
to pass judgment on the extra spiritual standing of
those reverend persons who, high and dry, rather
plumed themselves upon not being affected by all
this enthusiasm. This cannot be tolerated, and the
serious proprieties of Yale College soon found an
occasion to rebuke it and make an example of the
One day after a meeting of these earnest students,
Brainerd, with two or three of his intimate friends,
remained behind chatting together and discussing one
of the tutors, a Mr. Whittesley, who evidently had not
struck them with a sense of his fervent zeal.
" What, Brainerd, do you think of Mr. Whittesley ? "
asked one of his friends.
"He has no more grace than this chair," was the
A listening freshman at the door caught these
words, ran and told them to some tattling women in
the town, who lost no time in imparting the secret to
the rector of the college. A frenzy of indignation
seized upon the rulers at Yale, the informing fresh
man was examined, who quickly said it was Brainerd s
voice he heard ; his intimate friends to whom he had
36 DAVID BRAIN ERD.
spoken were summoned and compelled to give evi
dence against him, and the judgment was, that
Brainerd, as if he had been guilty of some open,
notorious crime, "should make a public confession,
and humble himself before the college." This David,
like a man, declined to do, and, therefore, he was
expelled the college.
This harsh proceeding, a punishment altogether
disproportionate to the offence, was a severe blow to
Brainerd, indeed it gloomed the whole of his after-life.
To a nature so sensitive as his the disgrace was
insupportable, and he felt forcibly that careless and
disrespectful as the words were which he had uttered,
they had not been wholly without truth. Indeed,
judging from the conduct of these irate professors,
their possession of grace, looked at from our point of
view, must have been slender indeed. What added to
the mortification of Brainerd too, was the fact that his
summary expulsion took place just before the public
honours of the year, when, had he been among the
students, he would have been entitled to the first
position in the class, and have graduated with dis
tinction. In after years, at the advice of his friends,
he would have made many humble apologies if they
would but withdraw his expulsion, but the authorities
were inexorable. But while they thus embittered the
life of Brainerd, posterity has given him the highest
position of all who have entered that college door,
which to-day is chiefly famous because it has the
honour of being associated with his noble name.
His next step was to go to Ripton, and live with
the Reverend Mr. Mills, the minister of that village,
where he continued his studies. While there he
makes a significant note in his diary :
" I then began to find it sweet to pray, and could
think of undergoing the greatest suffering in the cause
of Christ with pleasure, and find myself willing, if God
should so order it, to suffer banishment from my
native land, among the heathen, that I might do
THE STUDENT EXPELLED. 39
something for their salvation, in distresses and deaths
of any kind."
And then again under date 2Oth April, 1742, he
notes that it is his twenty-fourth birthday, and praises
the Lord for all His mercy and grace.
" I think my soul was never drawn out so in inter
cession for others as it has been this night. Had a
most fervent wrestle with the Lord to-night for my
enemies, and I hardly ever so longed to live to God
and to be altogether devoted to Him, I wanted to
wear out my life in His service for His glory."
A few days afterwards we find him in a most
ecstatic condition of soul, he is so happy that in his
diary he pours forth his feelings in verse. " My very
soul," says he, " pants for the complete restoration of
the blessed image of my Saviour, that I may be fit
for the blessed enjoyments and employments of the
" Farewell, vain world ; my soul can bid adieu ;
My Saviour s taught me to abandon you.
Your charms may gratify a sensual mind,
Not pleasure a soul wholly for God designed.
Forbear to entice ; cease then my soul to call,
Tis fixed through grace my God shall be my ALL.
While He thus lets me heavenly glories view,
Your beauties fade, my heart s no room for you."
He was now licensed to preach, after due examina
tion as to his learning and experience, by the associa
tion of ministers belonging to the eastern district of
the county of Fairfield, in Connecticut. On his sub
sequent journeys we find the first mention of the
Indians. " I had in a great measure," he says in his
diary, " lost my hopes of God sending me among the
heathen afar off, and of seeing them flock home to
Christ. I saw so much of my hellish violences, that
I appeared worse to myself than any devil ; I won
dered that God would let me live, and wondered
that the people did not stone me, much more that
4O DAVID BRAINERD.
they should ever hear me preach! It seems as though
I never could or should preach any more, yet about
nine or ten o clock the people came over, and I was
forced to preach. And blessed be God He gave me
His presence and spirit in prayer and preaching, so
that I was much assisted, and spake with power from
Job xiv. 14. Some Indians cried out in great distress,
and all appeared greatly concerned. After we had
prayed, and exhorted them to seek the Lord with
constancy, and hired an English woman to keep a
kind of school among them, we came away about one
o clock, and came to Judea, about fifteen or sixteen
miles. There God was pleased to visit my soul with
much comfort. Blessed be the Lord for all the things
I meet with."
For several months after this his diary is rich in
records of a devout and self-examining mind. He
blessed God for the wonderful mercy and favour
which is granted him in every effort to promote the
spread of his Master s kingdom. It was clearly his
set purpose to make every detail of life a sacred thing ;
to bring his religion all along the line of his career,
so that every moment and every talent intrusted
to him should be really held in stewardship for the
purpose and will of his Heavenly Father. Thus
he makes a note of small conversations with friends
on spiritual subjects, of earnest prayers before writing
some letters, that he might bring glory to God thereby,
of many walks alone in the still night with heart-
searchings and strong cryings to the Lord. The rebuff
which he met with at college seems to have made
Brainerd still a little suspicious of any open manifesta
tion of a revival among his people ; the young Puritan
is growing staid again, and cares little for emotional
effects from his preaching of the Word. Here is a
sentence from his private note-book of this time,
which appears to disclose this state of mind :
" Wednesday, 2Jth October, 1742. I spent the fore
noon in prayer and meditation ; was not a little
THE STUDENT EXPELLED. 41
concerned about preaching in the afternoon felt
exceedingly without strength, and very helpless
indeed, and went into the meeting-house ashamed
to see any come to hear such an unspeakably worth
less wretch. However, God enabled me to speak with
clearness, power, and pungency. But there was some
noise and tumult in the assembly that I did not well
like, and endeavoured to bear public testimony against
it with moderation and mildness, through the current
of my discourse. In the evening I was enabled to be
in some measure thankful and devoted to God."
This young man had an unquenchable thirst for God.
Every page of his diary, written of course as a per
fectly private record, and never intended for future
publication, gleams with the fire of holy aspirations.
It matters not in what age, or under what variation of
circumstances they live, these saints of God, Augustine,
Thomas a Kempis, Henry Martyn, David Brainerd,
are in their best moments all alike so sensitive of
their utter unworthiness, and at all times yearn for the
indwelling of the Holy Spirit. Walking about his farm
at New Haven, Brainerd talks with God face to face,
and filled with the sweet hunger after righteousness,
is according to promise filled abundantly with Divine
love and peace. " At noon," he writes, " I longed for
sanctification and conformity to God. Oh, that is
THE ALL, THE ALL ! The Lord help me to press after
God for ever."
On the 1 9th of November of that year a messenger
brought a missive to Brainerd which mightily fluttered
him. It was written by the Rev. Mr. Pemberton, of
New York, an eminent and influential minister,
requesting him to come at once there, and take part
in a consultation about a special mission in contem
plation to reach the Indians. To Brainerd it seemed
too good to be true, a prospect opening out to him
which exceeded his utmost hopes. Of this man
truly it could never be said that he was disposed to
run before he was sent. Always afraid lest his poor
42 DAVID BRAINERD.
heart should deceive him, and lead him into vain
glory, he immediately brought together two or three
Christian friends, to whom he read the letter, and
begged their prayers and counsel. After this " sweet
time," as he called it, he obeyed the summons,
mounted his horse, and bade them farewell. It was
the turning point in his life ; and as he set out upon
that journey it was destined to be a pilgrimage of
honour and suffering, at the end of which waited an
The sight of New York, with what, to the young
farmer minister, seemed its confusing bustle and
agitation, almost overpowered him. The gentlemen
who had sent for him were the correspondents in
New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, of the
Honourable Society in Scotland for Promoting
Christian Knowledge, and these instantly examined
young Brainerd with a view to his fitness for this
position. They were fully satisfied, and discerned
in the humble disciple the marks of an heroic witness
for the Cross ; one evidently called of God for the
prosecution of this great work among the Indians.
We have no description of this eventful gathering
except that which Brainerd himself jots down after
wards ; this is so characteristic of the man at possibly
the most important juncture of his career that it must
be quoted entire :
" Thursday, Nov. 25, 1742. Spent much time in
prayer and supplication ; was examined by some
gentlemen of my Christian experiences, and my
acquaintance with divinity, and some other studies,
in order to my improvement in that important
affair of gospellizing the heathen, and was made
sensible of my great ignorance and unfitness for
public service. I had the most abasing thoughts of
myself I think that ever I had ; I thought myself the
worst wretch that ever lived ; it hurts me, and pained
my very heart that anybody should shew me any
respect. Alas ! one thought how sadly they are
THE STUDENT EXPELLED. 43
deceived in me ! how miserably would they be dis
appointed if they knew my inside ! Oh my heart !
And in this depressed condition I was forced to go
and preach to a considerable assembly, before some
grave and learned ministers ; but felt such a pressure
from a sense of my vileness, ignorance, and unfitness
to appear in public that I was almost overcome with
it ; my soul was grieved for the congregation, that
they should sit there to hear such a dead dog as I
preach. I thought myself infinitely indebted to the
people, and longed that God would reward them with
the rewards of His grace. ... I spent much of the
" Yes, and I will and must esteem
All things but loss for Jesus sake ;
O may my soul be found in Him,
And of His righteousness partake !
" The best obedience of my hands
Does not appear before Thy throne ;
But faith can answer Thy demands,
By pleading what the Lord has done."
AMONG THE WIGWAMS.
" I do not ask, O Lord, that Thou shouldst shed
Full radiance here.
Give but a ray of peace, that I may tread
Without a fear.
I do not ask my cross to understand,
My way to see ;
Better in darkness just to feel Thy hand,
And follow Thee." A. A. Procter.
THE opening of the year 1743 finds David
Brainerd bidding farewell to his friends with
the earnest solemnity of one who does not
expect ever to look upon their faces again.
Dangers, neither few nor slight, awaited him in his
new departure. The rigours of a severe winter had
set in ; the means of conveyance were absolutely
limited to his horse plodding over roadless wastes,
and news came swiftly that the Indians and the
AMONG THE WIGWAMS. 45
white settlers at Fort Delaware were in conflict, and
it would be extremely risky for the young missionary
to venture at such a time upon his work.
But Brainerd, standing now on the threshold of his
new sphere, looked forward full of faith in God. He
had long ago counted the cost, and deliberately made
a choice which meant separation from the world of
civilised life with its advantages, and association with
hardship, toil, and possibly an early and lonely death.
He calmly made his preparations. The small pro
perty which he inherited from his father, bringing him
in a sufficient livelihood, was immediately realised,
and the money invested to pay the expenses of a God
fearing young man at college as a candidate for the
ministry. Having thus divested himself of his money
for the glory of God, he preached his farewell sermon,
choosing the house of an old saint, who could not
attend public worship in consequence of infirmities ;
and the following morning his friends for the last time
knelt with him in prayer, and bade him good-bye. He
rode many miles, and crossing the Sound reached Long
Island, then inhabited by Indians. With mingled
feelings of self-despising and hope in God did the
young missionary approach the wigwams of the
people for whom he was willing and glad to give
up all that was dear, and even life itself, so that
he might win them for Christ. On Wednesday,
March Qth, 1743, he made this note in his diary :
" Endeavoured to commit myself and all my con
cerns to God. Rode sixteen miles to Manturk, and
had some inward sweetness on the road, but some
thing of flatness and deadness after I came there,
and had seen the Indians. I withdrew, and endea
voured to pray, but found myself awfully deserted and
left, and had an afflicting sense of my vileness and
meanness. However, I went and preached from
Isaiah liii. 10, Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him
etc. Had some assistance, and I trust something of
the Divine presence was amongst us. In the evening
46 DAVID BRAINERD.
I again prayed and exhorted among them, after
having had a season alone, wherein I was so pressed
with the blackness of my nature that I thought it was
not fit for me to speak so much as to Indians."
At the last moment, the instructions from the
Society, of which he was now the representative,
were not to go to Fort Delaware, but to proceed to
a place called Kaunaumeck, in the province of New
York, hidden away among the dense woods between
Stockbridge and Albany, and inhabited almost
entirely by the Indians. This spot he reached on
the ist of April, and there found a lodging on a heap
of straw. Casting himself on the ground, he was
fiercely attacked with melancholy, and abhorred
himself as the most detestable and unworthy of
human beings. He longed for some Christian
heart to cheer him ; some of the dear friends left
far behind to support by their sympathy and counsel
his fainting spirit. Instead of this consolation, his
trouble was embittered by the visit of an Irishman
and a Dutchman, who had come some distance to
hear him preach, and indulged, to his great distress,
in continual profanity. In his anguish of mind, he
crept into a hovel, and there groaned out to God,
who graciously gave His servant that comfort which
none other could afford.
His position was no enviable one from the point of
view of earthly c6mfort He was not the man to
complain, indeed he rejoiced in afflictions, and felt,
that deserving nothing at all, the smallest gift was in
mercy. He never knew that the words he penned
then in the solitudes of that Indian wilderness we
should ever read, and one night he wrote a few words
in his diary, which gives us a fairly good idea of the
desolateness of his position :
" My circumstances are such," says he, " that I have
no comfort of any kind but what I have in God.
I live in this most lonesome wilderness, having but
one single person to converse with that can speak
AMONG THE WIGWAMS. 47
English, most of the talk I hear is either Highland
Scotch or Indian. I have no fellow-Christian to
whom I might unbosom myself or lay open my
spiritual sorrows, with whom I might take sweet
counsel in conversation about heavenly things, and
join in social prayer. I live poorly with regard to the
comforts of this life, most of my diet consists of boiled
corn, pastry, pudding, etc. I lodge in a bundle of
straw, my labour is hard and extremely difficult, and
I have little appearance of success to comfort me.
The Indians have no land to live on but what the
Dutch people lay claim to, and these threaten to
drive them off. They have no regard to the souls of
the poor Indians, and by what I can learn, they hate
me because I came to preach to them. But what
makes all my difficulties grievous to be borne is, that
God hides His face from me"
What a glimpse of a brave soul in perpetual
spiritual eclipse, but sticking to his post of duty,
loyal to God ; " Though He slay me, yet will I trust
in Him." With his own hands he built himself a hut
to dwell in, and night after night leaving this poor
abode he would wander on the dark moor, talking,
moaning, praying by turns, now catching bright
glimpses of heavenly rapture, then plunged again
into gloomy dejection.
" I have been so crushed down sometimes," he
writes, "with a sense of my meanness and infinite
unworthiness, that I have been ashamed that any,
even the meanest of my fellow-creatures, should so
much as spend a thought about me, and have wished
sometimes, while travelling among the thick brakes,
to drop as one of them into everlasting oblivion."
Occasionally, when weary, he lies on his straw and
pours forth his feelings in rhyme :
" Come, death, shake hands ; I 11 kiss thy bands :
Tis happiness for me to die.
What ! dost thou think that I will shrink ?
I 11 go to immortality."
48 DAVID BRAINERD.
As an instance and evidence of the extreme
sensitiveness of this man, we find that in his lonely
and friendless condition he was again worrying him
self about the expulsion from college. He set down
in writing a most humble retractation and confession,
and prayed the rector and authorities of the college
to give him his degree, but, as we have seen, they
were inexorable, and left the sting to rankle in his
We have no evidence that Brainerd had any special
gift of tongues, and from his own observations, noted
down from time to time, it would appear that he had
to labour very diligently to master the language of
the North American Indians. The complex charac
ter of the language may be imagined when we find
our English word " question " in the Iroquis is
" kremmogkodonaltootiteavreganumeouash." Another
missionary who was labouring among the Indians
at Stockbridge was his chief helper in this difficulty,
and to visit this Mr. Sergeant for instruction he had
to constantly ride on horseback through the wild,
dark forests, twenty miles from place to place, and
this too in the depth of winter. Thus it will be seen
that this pursuit of knowledge was under real diffi
culties, especially when it is remembered that he was
a delicate, ailing man, a fervent spirit urging on a
feeble, aching frame.
For a whole year he worked on at Kaunaumeck,
sharing the life and hardships of the Indians, preach
ing to them faithfully the Gospel of Jesus Christ, but
with small success. He felt that his ministry was not
the power it ought to be, and therefore he persuaded
the Indians to emigrate from that place to Stock-
bridge, where his friend Mr. Sergeant could more
acceptably work amongst them. As soon as this
plan had been carried out, Brainerd hastened to New
Jersey, and finding the Commissioners of the Society
at Elizabethtown, told them of his readiness to be
sent to other Indians, where he might begin work
AMONG THE WIGWAMS. 51
again. They immediately responded to his request
by sending him to the native encampments on the
Forks of the Delaware, which was destined to be
his future sphere. Before starting out afresh, how
ever, he had several invitations to become the pastor
of New England congregations, and especially did
the people who had formed a church at East Hamp
ton and Long Island beg that he would be their
minister. To many a man in his position the sugges
tion would have been a temptation not to be disre
garded. He was in a wretched state of health and
physically quite incapable of enduring the privations
of Indian life, and East Hampton was then a charm
ing settlement amid the finest scenery, and he
would have had the grateful attention of a wealthy
and devoted people. Then his first essay as a
missionary to the Indians had not been altogether
successful, even with the assistance of his friend Mr.
Sergeant, at a comparatively near station, and if he
went to the Forks of Delaware he would be quite
isolated from his friends and kindred. It was a crisis
in his life, and the position must for a time at least
have been a difficult and painful choice with him.
The only note he leaves us of the momentous decision
is extremely brief. " Resolved to go on then with the
Indians, if Divine providence permitted, although I
had before felt some inclination to go to East Hamp
ton, where I was educated to go." His mind, once
made up, Brainerd lost no time in setting forth,
disposed of his books, clothes, etc., and in the pouring
rain began a long march through the wilderness. He
had to ford the Hudson river, and to go nearly a
hundred miles beyond through the woods, and at last
on Saturday, the I2th of May, 1744, he reached a little
settlement of Irish and Dutch people, twelve miles
from the Forks of Delaware, where he would have to
work. The journey had prostrated him, and more
dead than alive he caught first sight of the wigwams
of the Indians. This constant feeling of breaking up
5* DAVID BRAINERD.
seems to have excited in Brainerd a thirst for winning
souls ere the end should come. Henry Martyn,
fragile and exhausted after dragging himself across
Persian plains, is perhaps most like this young Puri
tan missionary in his weakness of body and consum
ing energy of soul. What infinite pathos there is in
these brief records of his experiences at this time.
He had enjoyed a brief sleep, and awoke on the
Lord s Day amid his new surroundings.
" Rose early, felt very poorly after my long journey,
and after being wet and fatigued. Was very melan
choly ; have scarce ever seen such a gloomy morning
in my life, there appeared to be no Sabbath, and the
children were all at play, I, a stranger in the wilder
ness and knew not where to go, and all circumstances
seemed to conspire to render my affairs dark and
discouraging. Was disappointed respecting an inter
preter, and heard that the Indians were much
scattered, etc. Oh, I mourned after the presence of
God, and seemed like a creature banished from His
sight ! Yet He was pleased to support my sinking
soul amidst all my sorrows, so that I never entertained
any thought of quitting my business among the poor
Indians, but was comforted to think that death
would ere long set me free from these distresses."
He became a little more encouraged, however, on
finding the Indians so willing to listen to him, although
some of their practices, especially funeral rites, which
he was compelled to witness, greatly shocked him.
In obedience to orders which reached him from the
Society, Brainerd now journeyed to Newark, in New
Jersey, where the Presbytery were waiting to ordain
him. This solemn occasion much impressed him.
He was utterly out of health, and after passing the
examination underwent a sleepless night, but got
through very well, and his probation sermon from the
text, " Delivering thee from the people and from the
Gentiles," etc., was very favourably received. His old
friend, Rev. Mr. Pemberton, gave the ordination
AMONG THE WIGWAMS. 53
charge ; the principal listener was, he tells us, " com
posed and solemn, without distraction, and I hope
that then, as many times before, I gave myself up to
God, to be for Him and not for another."
The official statement written to the Society in
Scotland declares, " We can, with pleasure, say that
Mr. Brainerd passed through his ordination trial to
the universal approbation of the Presbytery, and
appeared uncommonly qualified for the work of the
ministry. He seems to be armed with a great deal of
self-denial, and animated with a noble zeal to propa
gate the Gospel among those barbarous nations who
have long dwelt in the darkness of heathenism."
After his ordination Brainerd was eager to return
to his work, but an attack of illness delayed his
departure. This enforced leisure of a few days with
his friends produced in his mind unmingled feelings
of thankfulness and self-abasement. He had some
sweet seasons of communion with his fellow-Christians,
gaining, thereby, hope and encouragement for the task
which lay before him. The kindness of his friends
filled him with gratitude. " I wondered," he says,
" that God should open the hearts of many to treat
me with such kindness, and myself to be so unworthy
of any favour from God or any of my fellow-men."
His illness, undoubtedly had much to do with the
constant melancholy which, like a cloud, overcast his
life. He makes a note in his diary, that " I was
much exercised with pain in my head ; however,
I determined to set out on my journey towards
Delaware in the afternoon, but when the afternoon
came my pain increased exceedingly, so that I was
obliged to betake myself to bed. The night following,
I was greatly distressed with pain and sickness, was
sometimes almost bereaved of the exercise of reason
by the extremity of pain. Continued much distressed
till Saturday, when I was somewhat relieved by an
emetic, but was unable to walk about till the Monday
following in the afternoon, and still remained very
54 DAVID BRAINERD.
feeble. I often admired the goodness of God, that
He did not suffer me to proceed on my journey from
the place where I was so tenderly used and to be sick
by the way amongst strangers. God is very gracious
to me, both in health and sickness, and intermingles
much mercy with all my afflictions and toils."
The ever-present sense of his own sinfulness recalls
an ancient sacred poem, with which this chapter shall
" If I could shut the gate against my thoughts,
And keep out sorrow from this room within,
Or memory could cancel all the notes
Of my misdeeds, and I unthink my sin :
How free, how clear, how clean, my soul should be,
Discharged of such a loathsome company.
" Or were there other rooms within my heart
That did not to my conscience join so near,
Where I might lodge the thoughts of sin apart,
That I might not their clamorous crying hear,
What peace, what joy, what ease should I possess,
Free from the horrors that my soul oppress !
" But, O my Saviour, who my refuge art,
Let Thy dear mercies stand twixt them and me,
And be the wall to separate the heart
So that I may at length repose me free ;
That peace, and joy, and rest, may be within,
And I remain divided from my sin."
FAINT, YET PURSUING.
" I will not let Thee go, Thou Help in time of need !
Heap ill on ill,
I trust Thee still.
Even when it seems that Thou would st stay indeed !
Do as Thou wilt with me,
I yet will cling to Thee.
Hide Thou Thy face, yet, Help in time of need,
I will not let Thee go ! "Desszler.
\O the eye of reason," says Brainerd, "every
thing that respects the conversion of the
heathen is as dark as midnight." Such was
his conclusion as he began his missionary
campaign at the Forks of the Delaware. The grand
purpose which had called him there filled his thoughts
by day and his dreams by night ; his spirit was strait
ened until the end of his coming was accomplished.
Constantly he speaks of his " poor Indians," going to
56 DAVID BRAINERD.
and fro among them preaching the glad tidings of a
Saviour, and when all the woods were hushed in mid
night gloom, his voice could be heard entreating the
Lord to save their souls. He had so completely
severed himself from the outside world, that its con
cerns interested him no more ; one thought, one aim,
one desire, burning as a sacred passion, strove in his
soul. " I was much assisted in prayer," he tells us of
one night, " for dear Christian friends, and for others
that I apprehended to be Christless, but was more
especially concerned for the poor heathen, and those
of my own charge ; was enabled to be instant in
prayer for them, and hoped that God would bow the
heavens, and come down for their salvation."
The difficulties in his way were great his inexperi
ence with the language especially, as it was split up
into so many dialects ; his poor, failing health, the
spirit for ever outrunning the flesh ; and the ignorance
of the Indians, rendered still more an obstacle by
their familiarity with white men, who treated them
with brutality, deceived them, and left an impression
then, as now, that the God of the palefaces was no
friend of the poor redskin. Grasping traders and
unscrupulous colonists had so pushed the Indians
into hostility that it was some time before Brainerd
could win their confidence, and make them feel that,
with a brother s yearning love, he sought not theirs
We see him busying himself to make them more
comfortable in their settlements, travelling miles on
horseback to negotiate with the white people for land,
on which they might dwell in peace.
One Saturday evening he had been spending some
time, as was his custom, in the woods meditating, and
examining his own heart, when, on his return to the
encampment, he heard that on the morrow a great
feast was to be held, with idolatrous practices. His
mind was in anguish about it. " I thought that I
must, in conscience, go and endeavour to break them
FAINT, YET PURSUING. 57
up, and knew not how to attempt such a thing.
However, I withdrew for prayer, hoping for strength
from above." That night he spent in such an agony
of supplication as can scarcely be described. When
he rose from his knees, he could scarcely stand for
very exhaustion, the perspiration stood on his fore
head, he had cried to God until voice utterly failed,
and Nature exhausted seemed, as he thought, to be
giving way. Then came to him such a wonderful
sense of confidence in God, and entire surrender to
His will, as he never forgot to his dying day. He
speaks of it as a season altogether " inexpressible."
" All things here below vanished, and there appeared
to be nothing of any considerable importance to me
but holiness of heart and life, and the conversion of
the heathen to God. All my cares, fears, and desires,
which might be said to be of a worldly nature dis
appeared, and were, in my esteem, of little more
importance than a puff of wind. I exceedingly
longed that God would get to Himself a name among
the heathen, and I appealed to Him, with the greatest
freedom, that He knew I preferred Him above my
chief joy. Indeed, I had no notion of joy for this world,
I care not where or how I lived, or what hardships I
went through, so that I could but gain souls to Christ.
I continued in this frame all the evening and all the
night. When I was asleep I dreamt of these things,
and when I waked (as I frequently did), the first
thing I thought of was this great work of pleading for
God against Satan."
When the day dawned he hurried to the woods to
pour out his soul again to God, and emerge into
the open again, with " a strong hope that God would
bear the burdens and come down and do some mar
vellous work among the heathen."
After three miles riding he reached the Indians,
who were dancing wildly, and engaged in the frantic
leapings and shoutings which is still one of the dis
tinguishing and terrifying characteristics of their
5 8 DAVID BRAINERD.
worship. Brainerd went right into the midst of them,
and with the blessing of the Divine companionship
clothing him with grace and power, he persuaded
them to cease and break up their gathering, so far,
indeed, succeeding, that the Indians, who were frolick
ing about their medicine men, grouped themselves
around the young Puritan, and listened with rapt atten
tion to the Word of the Lord. Strange to say, after
this remarkable answer to prayer, the preacher slowly
wended his way home, disconsolate and buffeted by
the insinuations of the evil one. " I was very weak
and weary, and my soul borne down with perplexity,
but was mortified to all the world, and was determined
still to wait upon God for the conversion of the
heathen, though the devil tempted me to the contrary."
After this followed three weeks of illness, intense
pain, in the midst of which he managed to crawl to
his Indians to speak to them, but in truth he was sick
and ready to die. He would sit amongst them, Bible
in hand, pondering the Word of Life. Here we see
the hero spirit in this faithful witness. Suffering made
his work apostolic ; with scarcely an exception he
shared the same trials of him who speaks of being
" in journeyings often, in perils of waters, in perils of
robbers, in perils by mine own countrymen, in perils
by the heathen, in perils in the city, in perils in the
wilderness, in perils on the sea, in perils amongst false
brethren, in weariness and painfulness, in watchings
often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often, in cold
At last he is so enfeebled that he cannot leave his
hut, and the uncertainty of his mind begins to fill him
with alarm. What infinite tenderness lies in these
words which he scrawled upon paper as he lay there
alone, save for his God.
" I am obliged to let all my thoughts and concerns
run at random, for I have neither strength to read,
meditate or pray, and this naturally perplexes my
mind. I seem to myself like a man that has all his
FAINT, YET PURSUING. 59
estate embarked in one small boat, unhappily going
adrift down a swift torrent. The poor man stands on
the shore and looks, and laments his loss. But alas !
though my all seems to be adrift, and I stand and see
it, I dare not lament, for this sinks my spirit more
and aggravates my bodily disorders. I am forced,
therefore, to divert myself with trifles, although at the
same time I am afraid and often feel as if I was guilty
of the mismanagement of time. And oftentimes my
conscience is so exercised with the miserable way of
spending time, that I have no peace, though I have no
strength of mind or body to improve it to better pur
pose, and hope that God will pity my distressed state ! "
God did so, and Brainerd sets forth upon a mission
ary journey of four hundred and twenty miles, and then
after a few days rest, with recovered strength he goes
forth to meet his friend Byram, who was to be his
companion on an expedition to the Indians at Susque-
hannah. This journey was adventurous and fraught
witlfdanger. They travelled mile after mile through a
wilderness which Brainerd calls " hideous and howl
ing," then reaching a mountain range they had to find
or make a track over their brows, and through the
awful gorges and chasms at their feet. One dark
night just where a precipice was near, Brainerd s
horse trapped its leg between the rocks and threw its
rider, fortunately without injury to him, but he had to
kill the horse, as with her legs broken he knew there
was no help for it in such a desert place. Here halt
ing for a space they gathered a few bushes and made
a fire, and then heaping up some slight shelter from
the biting wind they committed themselves to their
God, and fell asleep upon the turf.
" Through the day Thy love hath spared us ;
Wearied we lie down to rest,
Through the silent watches guard us,
Let no foe our peace molest,
Jesus, Thou our guardian be,
Sweet it is to trust in Thee.
6O DAVID BRAINERD.
" Pilgrims here on earth, and strangers,
Dwelling in the midst of foes,
Us and ours preserve from dangers,
In Thine arms may we repose,
And when life s short day is past,
Rest with Thee in heaven at last."
Their reception by the Indian encampment was
cordial and satisfactory. Brainerd courteously sa
luted the king or chief, and forthwith preached to the
large crowd of braves who, with their squaws, gathered
round. The following day he preached again, and
asked them to put off a grand hunting expedition, for
which they were preparing, in order that he might
continue for a few days more to instruct them in the
truths of Christianity. This they consented to do,
but he was a little astonished and "rather damped," as
he says, to find some of the leading Indians entering
into argument with him, and raising strong objections
to Christianity. What these objections were is an
interesting inquiry, and fortunately amongst the other
valuable memoranda which Brainerd left behind him,
is a statement of the difficulties which the Indian feels
standing in the way of his accepting the Gospel.
The first of these is a sorrowful fact, the objection
which not only these poor Indians of a hundred and
fifty years ago felt well-nigh insurmountable, but
which, amongst the heathen and the civilised alike,
is the difficulty to-day. The following words of
Brainerd, sounding like a far-off appeal to Christians
across the dim waste of years, is painfully, pitifully
true, and needed in the mission world to-day. He
tells us that these Indians have a rooted aversion to
Christianity, and abhor even the Christian name.
Why ? " This aversion to Christianity arises partly
from a view of the immorality and vicious behaviour
of many who are called Christians. They observe
that horrid wickedness in nominal Christians, which
the light of nature condemns in themselves, and not
having distinguishing views of things, are ready to look
FAINT, YET PURSUING. 63
upon all the white people alike for the abominable
practices of some. Hence, when I have attempted to
treat with them about Christianity, they have fre
quently objected to the scandalous practices of
Christians. They have observed to me that the
white people lie, defraud, steal, and drink worse than
the Indians ; that they have taught the Indians these
things, especially the latter of them, who before the
coming of the English knew of no such thing as strong
drink ; that the English have by these means made
them quarrel and kill one another, and in a word
brought them to the practice of all those vices which
now prevail amongst them. "
Another objection to Christianity preferred by these
Indians is still a difficulty in many fields of work
to-day, that is the " fear of being enslaved." When
Brainerd told these people that Christianity was for
their good, they would remind him of their losses of
land, of liberty ; that the white men were so strong,
and had such means of killing them, that they were
suspicious that the missionary had only been "sent
out to draw them together under a pretence of kind
ness to them, that they may have an opportunity to
make slaves of them, as they do of the poor negroes,
or else to ship them on board their vessels, and make
them fight with their enemies, etc." They are very
suspicious, not without reason too, of the friendship of
the white man. " He never would," they said, with a
cautious shake of the head, " take all these pains to do
us good, he must have some wicked design to hurt us
in some way or other."
Brainerd enters very fully into another and more
serious objection, "their strong attachment to their
own religious notions (if they may be called religious),
and the early prejudices they have imbibed in favour
of their own frantic and ridiculous kind of worship."
He was evidently not impressed very favourably with
the practices of the native religion. He tells us that
he finds a belief existing that all birds, beasts, and
64 DAVID BRAINERD.
reptiles must be reverenced, because they are possessed
with a Divine power to do good or evil to man
kind, " whence such a creature becomes sacred to the
persons to whom he is supposed to be the immediate
author of good, and through him they must worship
the invisible powers, though to others he is no more
than another creature. And perhaps another animal
is looked upon to be the immediate author of good to
another, and consequently he must worship the invis
ible powers in that animal. I have seen a Pagan
burn fine tobacco for incense in order to appease
the anger of that invisible power which he supposed
presided over rattlesnakes, because one of these
animals was killed by another Indian near his
house." Before the coming of the English they had
a belief in four deities, occupying the four corners of
the earth, but when they saw the pale faces they
reduced the number to three, one creating English,
another Negroes, and the third themselves. They
had peculiar notions about the future state, believing
implicitly that the chichung (i.e., the shadow), or what
survives death, goes southward to a place of perfect
happiness and content. A curious circumstance was
that these Indians held a notion that sins and offences
were only as regards themselves, and it never occurred
to them that they could fail of a happy hereafter from
any want of religious observance or belief. "I re
member," says Brainerd, "I once consulted a very
ancient but intelligent Indian upon the point for my
own satisfaction, and asked him whether the Indians
of old times had supposed there was anything of the
man that would survive the body. He replied, Yes.
I asked him where they supposed its abode would be ?
He replied, It would go southward. I asked him
further whether it would be happy there? He
answered, after a considerable pause, that the souls
of good folks would be happy, and the souls of bad
folks miserable. I then asked him who he called bad
folks ? His answer (as I remember) was, Those who
FAINT, YET PURSUING. 65
lie, steal, quarrel with their neighbours, are unkind to
their friends, and especially to aged parents, and, in a
word, such as are a plague to mankind/ "
Akin to this loyalty to religious beliefs, is the
immense influence of their pow-wows or magicians.
A POW-WOW THREATENING A CHRISTIAN CONVERT.
This was the principal difficulty with which John
Eliot had to contend a hundred years before, and this
is the great difficulty even to-day. Brainerd tells some
wonderful stories of the dreams and divinations of
the Indian pow-wows. He makes short work, how-
66 DAVID BRAINERD.
ever, of all their pretensions, calling it a mystery of
iniquity, and altogether of Satan. One fact, however,
he mentions is worthy of a brief record here, being
the confession to him made by one of these pow
wows after his conversion. He explained to the
missionary how the spirit of divination came upon
him. " He was admitted into the presence of a
wonderful being, who loved, pitied, and desired to do
him good. The interview took place in the upper
heaven, this being was shining as the brightest day,
and in him was reflected all the world. By his side
stood his shadow or spirit (chichung\ lovely as the
man himself, and after declaring who should be this
Indian s mother, he was asked to choose what he should
be in life. First to be a hunter, and afterwards a
pow-wow was the reply. Whereupon the great man
told him he should have what he desired, and that his
shadow should go along with him down to earth and be
with him for ever. There was, he says, all this time,
no words spoken between them. The conference was
not carried on by any human language, but they had
a kind of mental intelligence of each other s thoughts,
dispositions, and proposals. After this he says he
saw the great man no more, but supposes he has
come down to earth to be born, but the spirit or
shadow of the great man still attended him, and ever
after continued to appear to him in dreams and other
ways, until he felt the power of God s Word upon his
heart, since which it has entirely left him."
These statements, selected from many more which
Brainerd has preserved, will show the material with
which he had to deal in preaching to the Indians.
They also show that in times past as in times present,
the human heart, both among the heathen and the
civilised, is pre-occupied with false notions and
bewildering speculations forming a barrier to the
entrance of the Word. But then, as now, when the
Gospel is faithfully preached and sincerely received,
it is the power of God unto salvation freeing the soul
FAINT, YET PURSUING. 67
from slavish superstitions, and clothing it with a robe
of clear faith and sweet love. But to those who
accepted Christ persecution followed, and the pow
wows would dance before the young convert in a
frenzy of threatening rage.
The history of this devoted missionary is full of
evidence of the power of Christianity to effect, as
nothing else can, this radical change in human nature.
No material could be perhaps more unpromising in
many respects than these wild Indian tribes, who
were addicted to many brutalities as well as the
practice of most heathenish superstitions. While
Brainerd was spending his night-watches in the lonely
woods, he was in danger not only of wild beasts but
of the almost wilder men who roamed abroad, exult
ing in the trophies of scalped victims, and ready for
any act of savagery in their thirst for blood. Unto
such as these the missionary poured out the message
of his soul, denouncing without fear the blind idolatry
of their festivities, and preaching to them an undiluted
Gospel which counted them as all under sin and con
demnation. We have seen from his own testimony
how this made the medicine men his enemies ; the
hope of their gains was gone, their hold upon the
superstitious Indians was relaxed as the light of
Christ s Gospel dawned in the hearts of the people.
But undaunted Brainerd went on, strong in a sense
of being where duty called him, stronger still and more
assured in the knowledge that God stood by him and
would not desert His witness in the face of the foe.
" With force of arms we nothing can,
Full soon were we downridden ;
But for us fights the proper Man,
Whom God Himself hath bidden.
Ask ye who is this same ?
Christ Jesus is His name,
The Lord Sabaoth s Son ;
He and no other one
Shall conquer in the battle." Luther
AFTER MANY DAYS.
" Lone watcher on the mountain height 1
It is right precious to behold
The first long surf of climbing light
Flood all the thirsty east with gold ;
But we who in the shadow sit,
Know also when the day is nigh,
Seeing thy shining forehead lit
With His inspiring prophecy." Lowell.
THERE are two ways of finding happiness, it is
said, either by trying to get all that we want,
or by reducing our wants to the very smallest
compass. Socrates, looking in the Athenian
shop-window was twitted by an observer as forgetting
his philosophy in coveting the gold and silver which
he saw. But he said it was not so, he was just feeling
thankful that there were so many things which he
AFTER MANY DAYS. 69
could do without. And it is quite true of everything,
that the more we have the more we want, whether of
happiness, money, or righteousness.
David Brainerd was a Christian philosopher, and
he tried, and not unsuccessfully, to endure hardness
as a good soldier, and not cumber himself with too
many wants, as regards this world. As we have
already seen, when he began his ministry among the
Indians he made a clean sweep of all those desires
and attractions, which might otherwise bind him to a
civilised community. He felt that if he meant to
catch fish he must stand in the stream, and if he
wished to win these poor Indians for Christ he must
dwell amongst them as much as possible, as one of
themselves. Of course, in those days, New England
life had not the abundant comforts or luxuries to
which a missionary has to say farewell in our times,
but the sweet simplicity and severe regularity of those
Puritan homesteads had much to hold the heart of a
man of Brainerd s mould. Henceforth, however, the
wilderness must be his home, and instead of the
meeting-house, the shadowy woods and dark ravines
the places where he meets his God. In these soli
tudes he had high and inspiring communion, and
amidst many hardships and perils he was able to
rejoice in the compensation of the peace which
passeth all understanding. He tells us his mind,
under these trials, after a terribly arduous ride home
one night in one of his missionary journeys :
" About six at night," says he, " I lost my way
in the wilderness, and wandered over rocks and
mountains, down hideous steeps, through swamps and
most dreadful and dangerous places, and the night
being dark, so that few stars could be seen, I was
greatly exposed. I was much pinched with cold,
and distressed with an extreme pain in my head,
attended with sickness at my stomach, so that every
step I took was distressing to me. I had little hope
for several hours together but that I must lie out in
7O DAVID BRAINERD.
the woods all night in this distressed case. But about
nine o clock I found a house, through the abundant
goodness of God, and was kindly entertained. Thus
I have frequently been exposed, and sometimes lain
out the whole night, but God has hitherto preserved
me, and, blessed be His name, such fatigues and hard
ships as these seem to wean me more from the earth,
and I trust will make heaven the sweeter. Formerly,
when I was thus exposed to cold, rain, etc., I was
ready to please myself with the thoughts of enjoying
a comfortable house, a warm fire, and other outward
comforts, but now these have less place in my heart
(through the grace of God) and my eye is more to
God for comforts. In this world I expect tribulation,
and it does not now, as formerly, appear strange to
me. I do not in such seasons of difficulty flatter my
self that it might be better hereafter, but rather think
how much worse it might be, how much greater trials
others of God s children have endured, and how much
greater are yet reserved for me. Blessed be God
that He makes the thoughts of my journey s end and
of my dissolution a great comfort to me under my
sharpest trials, and scarce ever lets these thoughts be
attended with terror or melancholy, but they are
attended frequently with great joy."
Thus had Brainerd found the secret of happiness,
not in gratifying every craving of his heart, or by
extinguishing those desires, but by glorying in tribu
lation, and thinking more of the mercy of God than
of his own sufferings.
Of this man it may be truly said he died daily,
death constantly seemed to stare him in the face, and
meet him at every turn of the way. So often sorely
stricken with sickness, he was always urging himself
on to do more, and do it quickly lest it should be too
late. " I long to do much in a little time," he
says, "and, if it might be the Lord s will, to finish my
work speedily in this tiresome world. I am sure I do
not desire to live for anything in this world, and
AFTER MANY DAYS. 71
through grace I am not afraid to look the King of
Terrors in the face. .
He found it still necessary to use an interpreter, as
his command of the language was not sufficient, and
with this man, whom he had baptised after profession
of the Christian faith, Brainerd set out in May, 1745,
for Susquehannah. Their journey was most unpro-
pitious, the country bleak and shelterless, and in the
night time being visited by awful storms of rain and
thunder. They could find no place of cover, and the
sheets of water which descended made it impossible
to light a fire, and to add to their troubles, their
horses had eaten a poisonous plant, which rendered
them good for nothing. However they kept on their
way on foot, leading their animals, and at last finding
a little Indian hut of bark, they were thankful to rest
there. This missionary tour covered over a hundred
miles, along the banks of the river ; meeting with
seven or eight distinct tribes of Indians, and in
preaching to them he discerned how hostile they were
towards Christianity. A few he found, however, will
ing to learn, and these he carefully instructed in the
Word of God, and was much encouraged on finding
some of the Indians who had been with him at
Kaunaumeck recognising him with great gladness.
Afterwards he seems to have had much freedom in
speaking to the people, although as usual his physical
health was in a lamentable state. It was with diffi
culty that he managed to return to his quarters at
the Forks of Delaware, having traversed three hundred
and forty miles. Brainerd frequently spoke of the
difficulties with which he had to contend in his work
by reason of the Indian settlements lying so far apart.
During the space of three years he had to build for
himself a house in three different and far distant
localities viz., Kaunaumeck, the Forks of Delaware,
and Crossweeksung, and he had to pass between these
places constantly. He says that they needed his con
stant attention, for the oldest of them was but as a
72 DAVID BRAINERD.
child in his dependence upon the missionary for
advice and stimulus to action. He knew these people
and studied their character very closely, and has set
down his impressions very clearly and in a manner
full of interest. The question of the Indians, and
what will be done with them, is and will be a very
strong point with the people of America. Although
the Indian is rapidly disappearing, the world will not
soon forget him, and the opinions which Brainerd
formed all those years ago is well worth preserving.
"The Indians are a poor and indigent people, and
so destitute of the comforts of life, at some seasons of
the year especially, that it is impossible for a person,
who has any pity for them, to refrain from giving
assistance (as, in some cases, it is peculiarly necessary),
in order to remove their pagan jealousy, and engage
their friendship to Christianity. And while they
retain their pagan tempers, they discern little grati
tude amidst all the kindnesses they receive. If they
make any presents, they expect double satisfaction.
And Christianity itself does not at once cure them
of these ungrateful tempers.
" They have been bred up in idleness, and know
little about cultivating land, or indeed, of engaging
vigorously in any other business. So that I am
obliged to instruct them in, as well as press them
to, the performance of their work, and to be the
oversight of all their secular business. They have
little or no ambition or resolution. Not one in a
thousand of them has the spirit of a man. And it is
next to impossible to make them sensible of the duty
and importance of being active, diligent, and industri
ous in the management of their worldly business, and
to excite in them any spirit of promptitude of that
nature. When I have laboured to the utmost of my
ability to show them of what importance it would be
to the Christian interest among them, as well as to
their worldly comfort, for them to be laborious and
prudent in their business, and to furnish themselves
AFTER MANY DAYS. 73
with the comforts of life, how this would incline the
pagans to come among them, and so put them under
the means of salvation ; how it would encourage
religious persons of the white people to help them, as
well as stop the mouths of others that were disposed
to cavil against them ; how they might, by this
means, pay others their just dues, and so prevent
trouble from coming upon themselves and reproach
upon their Christian profession ; they have, indeed,
assented to all I said, but been little moved, and, con
sequently, have acted like themselves, or, at least, too
much so, though it must be acknowledged that those
who appear to have a sense of Divine things are con
siderably amended in this respect, and it is to be
hoped that time will make a yet greater alleviation
upon them for the better.
" The concern I have had for the settling of these
Indians in New Jersey in a compact form, in order to
their being a Christian congregation, in the capacity
of enjoying the means of grace, the care of managing
their worldly business in order to this end, and to
their having a comfortable livelihood, has been more
pressing to my mind, and cost me more labour and
fatigue for several months past, than all my other
work among them.
" Their wandering to and fro, in order to procure
the necessaries of life, is another difficulty that attends
my work. This has often deprived me of opportuni
ties to discourse with them, and it has thrown them
in the way of temptation, either among pagans fur
ther remote, where they have gone to hunt, who have
laughed at them for hearkening to Christianity, or
among white people, more horribly wicked, who have
often made them drunk, and then got their commodi
ties such as skins, baskets, brooms, shovels, and the
like, with which they designed to have bought corn
and other necessaries of life, for themselves and fami
lies for it may be nothing but a little strong liquor,
and then sent them home empty. So that for the
74 DAVID BRAINERD.
labour, perhaps, of several weeks, they have got noth
ing but the satisfaction of being drunken men, and
have not only lost their labour, but, which is infinitely
worse, the impressions of some Divine subjects that
were made upon their minds before."
It will be noticed, in the foregoing, that strong
drink, that curse of all the nations, had already begun
to produce its fatal results upon the poor Indians.
Perhaps there is no more conspicuous example to be
found in the history of any people, of the swift degra
dation of a race, through drink, than in the case of
the North American Indians. The fine qualities of
these people, their dignity and hardihood, have
rapidly disappeared by the desolating contact with
what is miscalled civilisation. Since Brainerd s day
they have lost their land wholesale, and are fast dying
out in poverty, drink, and despair. What drink has
begun, the bullet is rapidly completing, and the
Indians, among whose forefathers Brainerd laboured,
and about whose life all New England poets have
sung, will soon be a forgotten people.
Brainerd tells us at this time (July, 1745), about the
conversion of his interpreter, a native who had been
with him for some time. He and his wife were the
first Indians baptised by him. This man s spiritual
history, as presented in Brainerd s journal, is very
interesting. At one time a hard drinker, he seems to
have undergone a moral reformation after he entered
the service of the missionary, and even showed a desire
to do all he could to persuade the Indians to give up
their idolatries and accept Christianity. But as
regards his own soul, he seemed to give the message
no heed. One day, however, Brainerd had been preach
ing with very great power, and his interpreter who
was assisting him was much impressed. After a
time this wore off, but returned again with extra
ordinary intensity. Like his master he began to agonise
about his spiritual state, sleep departed from him, and
his fellow Indians noticed him as, with the deepest
AFTER MANY DAYS. 75
concern, he walked to and fro among them, crying
" What should I do to be saved ? " He told Brainerd
that before him there rose a high mountain up which
he was bound to ascend, but when he essayed to do
this " his way was hedged up with thorns that he
could not stir an inch farther." Vainly he strove, the
more he laboured to climb the mountain the more he
grew exhausted and despairing, so that he said, " it
signified just nothing at all for me to strive and struggle
any longer." The gloom upon him was deep, and look
ing back upon his life he lamented that while he had
not been such a sinner as some Indians, " he had never
done one good thing." At the same time he saw
clearly that others about were in the same peril and
difficulty, and in their present condition quite unable
to save themselves. Thus in his trouble of heart he
almost gave himself up for lost, when he said it was
as if an audible voice spoke to him, " There is hope ;
there is hope ! " And one day this hope passed into a
happy possession, for he was filled with peace through
believing in Jesus Christ, then he was able to go
amongst the Indians with a zealous regard for their
salvation, and the temptation of strong drink, "in
divers places where it was moving free as water,"
was no allurement to him. Brainerd after describing
this man s happy state, says of him, " Upon a new and
strict observation of his serious and savoury conversa
tion, his Christian temper and unblemished behaviour
for a considerable time, as well as his experience I
have given account of, I think that I have good
reason to hope that he is created anew in Christ
Jesus to good works. His name is Moses Tinda
Tantamy, he is about fifty years of age, and is pretty
well acquainted with the pagan notions and customs
of his countrymen, and so is the better able now to
expose them. He has, I am persuaded, already been
and I trust will yet be a blessing to the other
Success at last began to cheer the heart of the
76 DAVID BRAINERD.
missionary who had worked so hard without seeing
much perceptible fruit. At the request of the Society
he made the Indian town of Crossweeksung, in New
Jersey, his station, and from there he constantly
journeyed to the various Indian tribes scattered
abroad. The power of the Holy Ghost was upon him,
and as he preached the Indians were impressed in a
wonderful manner. The changed demeanour of his
hearers made a striking difference on his spirits, he no
longer constantly yearns for death, but says that he " is
willing to live, and in some respects desirous of it, that
I might do something for the dear Kingdom of Jesus
Christ." The penitence of these poor Indians greatly
affected him, he could not look upon them lamenting
their sins and praying for mercy, with dry eyes.
When they gathered for their evening meal in the
wigwam they would wait until he came to bless
the food ; and once when he was in a place preaching,
he noticed several weeping together, who came after
wards with the question of the Philippian jailor, and
received the apostolic reply and guidance. Upon
his heart had been the burden, and in those
midnight meetings with the Almighty, when no eye
saw and no ear heard the strivings of the saint
for the sinner s good, his cry had been, " I will
not let Thee go." Prayer offered thus was a prevail
ing power with God, and He who will be enquired of,
hearkened unto His suppliant s deske. Light was
breaking in the backwoods, and a presence, far more
wonderful than the great Spirit whom they had
ignorantly worshipped, was manifested in the hearts
of these heathen. How often in the solitude of the
night had Brainerd striven in prayer for these souls
so precious to God. " My soul, my very soul, longed
for the ingathering of the poor heathen, and I cried
to God for them most willingly and heartily ; I could
not but cry." The tarrying may be long, but it is
only tarrying ; the worker may toil, the disciple yearn
in love, the sower sow in tears, but the time of the
AFTER MANY DAYS. 77
singing of birds must come, and the sunshine of God s
favour brings joyously His kingdom in the hearts of
" Soul, then know thy full salvation ;
Rise o er sin and fear and care ;
Joy to find in every station
Something still to do or bear.
Think what spirit dwells within thee ;
Think what Father s smiles are thine ;
Think what Jesus did to win thee ;
Child of heaven, canst thou repine ?
" Haste thee on from grace to glory,
Armed by faith, and winged by prayer,
Heaven s eternal days before thee ;
God s own hand shall guide thee there.
Soon shall close thine earthly mission ;
Soon shall pass thy pilgrim days ;
Hope shall change to foil fruition,
Faith to sight, and prayer to praise."
A REVIVAL IN SCJSQUEHANNAH.
" My prayer hath power with God ; the grace
Unspeakable I now receive :
Through faith, I see Thee face to face,
I see Thee face to face and live ;
In vain, I have not wept and strove;
Thy nature and Thy name is Love." Wesley.
angel has seemed of late to trouble the
waters," said Brainerd in the month of
\^ August, 1745, and the time had come when
the multitude of his poor sin-stricken Indians
should hasten down the steps of repentance to find
restoration and salvation in the fountain open for
sin and uncleanness. At last, the burden of so many
prayers of strong cryings after God in the darkness
of the forest and of languishing longings for the souls
of the benighted was answered abundantly, and the
very windows of heaven opened to shower down the
blessing of grace Divine. The servant had long to
wait and, sometimes in the cloudy prospect of con
tinued disappointment, Brainerd had felt need
A REVIVAL IN SUSQUEHANNAH. 79
enough to pray for himself that his own faith fail
not. " My rising hopes, respecting the conversion of
the Indians," he says, " have been so often dashed,
that my spirit is as it were broken and courage
wasted, and I dare hardly hope." Not only so, his
power in preaching sometimes showed a conscious
droop, and perhaps because of the depression of his
own heart, seeing so little fruit of his incessant
labours, the liberty and zeal of his utterances flagged.
Here we see how wonderfully God was educating
him, and how in the right spirit he learnt the lesson
of discipline. " It pleased God to leave me very dry
and barren," he says in a note after preaching one
day, " so I do not remember to have been so strait
ened for a whole twelvemonth past. God is just, and
He has made my soul acquiesce in His will in this
regard. It is contrary to flesh and blood to be cut off
from all freedom in a large auditory, where their
expectations are much raised, but so it was with me,
and God helped me to say A men to it * Good is the
will of the Lord."
Now, however, the cloud lifts and the heart compel
ling light of the Spirit of the Lord scatters the darkness.
The revival in Susquehannah will stand on record as
one of the most remarkable events in the history of
Christian enterprise. Suddenly upon the whole
Indian population fell what Brainerd calls " a most
surprising concern." From all parts, the people came
streaming in, holding his bridle and crowding round
his horse to catch a few words of instruction, standing
in speechless interest to hear his preaching, and
falling down in frantic distress of soul. He stood
among them and talked about those wondrous words,
" Herein is love," while the air was full of their cries
for mercy. " Not three in forty," he says, " were
unaffected in this manner." One of the striking
features of this revival was the fact that the preaching
to which they listened had nothing of the terrors of
the law in it. Brainerd specially observes this, and
8O DAVID BRAINERD.
is surprised to find the hearts of these Indians so
melted by the story of the love of Jesus. He walks
up to a group of men who are bitterly weeping, and
asks them what they want God to do for them.
They replied, " They wanted Christ should wipe their
hearts quite clean, etc. Surprising were now the
doings of the Lord, that I can say no less of this day
and I need say no more of it than that the arm of
the Lord was powerfully and marvellously revealed
in it." The cry of those penitents is well expressed
by one who himself had preached the Gospel to the
Indians in Georgia :
" O my God what must I do ?
Thou alone the way canst show;
Thou canst save me in this hour,
I have neither will nor power;
God, if over all Thou art,
Greater than my sinful heart,
All Thy power on me be shown,
Take away the heart of stone."
Here is a brief extract from Brainerd s journal,
describing in his own words at the time, some of these
extraordinary scenes of spiritual awakening :
" In the afternoon I preached to the Indians, their
number was now about sixty- five persons, men, women,
and children. I discoursed from Luke xiv. 16-23,
and was favoured with uncommon freedom in my
discourse. There was much visible concern among
them while I was discoursing publicly, but afterwards
when I spoke to one and another more particularly,
whom I perceived under much concern, the power of
God seemed to descend upon the assembly like a
rushing mighty wind/ and with an astonishing energy
bore down all before it.
" I stood amazed at the influence which seized the
audience almost universally and could compare it to
nothing more aptly than the irresistible force of a
mighty torrent or swelling deluge, that with its
A REVIVAL IN SUSQUEHANNAH.
insupportable weight and pressure bears down and
sweeps before it whatever is in its way. Almost all
persons of all ages were bowed down with concern
together, and scarce one was able to withstand the
BRAINERD PREACHING TO THE INDIANS.
shock of this surprising operation. Old men and
women who had been drunken wretches for many
years, and some little children, not more than six or
seven years of age, appeared in distress for their souls,
as well as persons of middle age. And it was
82 DAVID BRAINERD.
apparent these children (some of them at least) were
not merely frightened with seeing the general concern,
but were made sensible of their danger, the badness
of their hearts, and their misery without Christ, as
some of them expressed it. The most stubborn hearts
were now obliged to bow. A principal man among
the Indians, who before was most secure and self-
righteous, and thought his state good because he knew
more than the generality of the Indians had formerly
done, and who with a great degree of confidence the
day before told me he had been a Christian more than
ten years, was now brought under solemn concern for
his soul and wept bitterly. Another man, advanced
in years, who had been a murderer, a pow-wow (or
conjuror), a notorious drunkard, was likewise brought
now to cry for mercy with many tears, and to com
plain much that he could be no more concerned when
he saw his danger so very great.
" They were almost universally praying and crying
for mercy in every part of the house and many out of
doors, and numbers could neither go nor stand. Their
concern was so great, each one for himself, that none
seemed to take any notice of those about them, but
each praying freely for himself. And I am to think
they were to their own apprehension as much retired
as if they had been individually by themselves in the
thickest desert, or believe rather that they thought
nothing about any but themselves, and their own
states and so here every one praying apart although
" It seemed to me there was now an exact fulfilment
of that prophecy, Zech. xii. 10, n, 12, for there was
now * a great mourning like the mourning of Hadad-
rimmon/ and each seemed to mourn apart. We
thought this had a near resemblance to the day of
God s power mentioned, Josh. x. 14, for I must say
I never saw any day like it in all respects ; it was a
day wherein I am persuaded, the Lord did much to
destroy the kingdoms of darkness among this people.
A REVIVAL IN SUSQUEHANNAH. 83
" This concern in general was most rational and just,
those who had been awakened any considerable time
complained more especially of the badness of their
hearts, and those newly awakened of the badness of
their lives and actions past, and all were afraid of the
anger of God, and of everlasting misery as the desert
of their sins. Some of the white people who came
out of curiosity to hear what this babbler would
say* to the poor ignorant Indians were much
awakened, and some appeared to be wounded with
a view of their perishing state."
The picture of these poor children of the woods
stretching out hands of faith to the Saviour, and weep
ing their way to forgiveness and peace, is full of spirit
ual beauty and interest. As Brainerd tells us, there
were some white men who stood at a distance, possibly
to criticise, of whom a few at any rate " who came to
scoff remained to pray." But others did as some do
now, look on incredulously and with scarce concealed
scorn at the sight of sinners finding salvation. They
stand aside while as the great Master Himself said,
" the publicans and the harlots " crowd into the king
dom, and the heathen who aforetime were afar off
are now brought nigh by the blood of Jesus.
Human hearts in their bondage of misery and
happy release by the atonement of Christ are still the
same ; there is a wonderful similarity between the
three thousand who were pricked in their heart
on the day of Pentecost, the crying Indians in
Susquehannah, and those who gladly receive the
Word to-day. This is evidenced by the following
extract from Brainerd s journal :
"A young Indian woman who I believe never
knew before she had a soul, nor ever thought of any
such thing, hearing that there was something strange
among the Indians, came, it seems, to see what was
the matter. On her way to the Indians she called at
my lodgings, and when I told her I designed presently
to preach to the Indians, laughed and seemed to
84 DAVID BRAINERD.
mock ; but went, however, to them. I had not pro
ceeded far in my public discourse before she felt
effectually that she had a soul, and before I had
concluded my discourse, she was so convinced of her
sin and misery and so distressed with concern for her
soul s salvation, that she seemed like one pierced
through with a dart, and cried out incessantly. She
could neither go, nor stand, nor sit on her seat with
out being held up. After public service was over she
lay flat on the ground praying earnestly, and would
take no notice of nor give any answer to any that
spoke to her. I hearkened to know what she said,
and perceived the burden of her prayer to be,
Guttummaukalummeh weehaumeh Kineleh Ndahl
that is * Have mercy on me and help me to give you
my heart. And thus she continued praying inces
santly for many hours together. This was, indeed, a
surprising day of God s power, and seemed enough to
convince an atheist of the truth, importance, and
power of God s Word.
" I spent almost the whole day with the Indians,
the former part of it in discoursing to many of them
privately, and especially to some who had lately
received comfort, and endeavouring to inquire into
the grounds of it as well as to give them some proper
instructions, cautions, and directions.
"In the afternoon I discoursed to them publicly.
There were now present about seventy persons, old
and young. I opened and applied the parable of the
sower, Matthew xiii. I was enabled to discourse with
much plainness, and found afterwards that this dis
course was very instructive to them. There were
many tears among them while I was discoursing
publicly, but no considerable cry, yet some were
much affected with a few words spoken from Matthew
xi. 28, Come unto Me all ye that labour , etc., with
which I concluded my discourse. But while I was
discoursing near night to two or three of the unknown
persons a Divine influence seemed to attend what was
A REVIVAL IN SUSQUEHANNAH. 85
spoken to them in a peaceful manner, which caused
the persons to cry out in anguish of soul although I
spoke not a word of terror, but on the contrary set
before them the fulness and all suffering of Christ s
merits and His willingness to save all that came to
Him, and therefore pressed them to come without
" The cry of these was soon heard by others, who
though scattered before, immediately gathered round.
I then proceeded in the same strain of Gospel invita
tion, till they were all melted into tears and cried
except two or three, and seemed in the greatest
distress to find and secure an interest in the great
Redeemer; some who had but little more than a
ruffle made in their passions the day before, seemed
now to be deeply affected and wounded at heart, and
the concern in general appeared to us as prevalent as
it was on the day before. There was indeed a very
great mourning among them, and yet every one
seemed to mourn apart. For so great was their con
cern that almost every one was praying and crying
for himself, as if none had been near ; Guttummauka-
lummeh, guttummaukalummehl that is, Have mercy
upon me, have mercy upon me, was the common
" It was very affecting to see the poor Indians, who
the other day were hallooing and yelling in their
idolatrous feasts and drunken frolics now crying to
God with such importunity for an interest in His
dear Son. I found two or three persons who I had
reason to hope had taken comfort upon good grounds
since the evening before, and these with others that
had obtained comfort were together, and seemed to
rejoice much that God was carrying on His work with
such force upon others."
Faith we know without works is dead, and the
reality of this great spiritual stir among the Indians
was proved by this thoroughness of their change of life.
When they had received the inexpressible comfort of
86 DAVID BRAINERD.
Christ s peace, these con verts asked Brainerd forinstruc-
tion as to their mode of life, and were willing to do any
thing which would conform their conduct to the princi
ples of the Christian religion. Questions of morality, of
honesty in trading, of kindness to children, and duty
to wives and husbands, were discussed freely with a
desire to know the way of God in these matters. One
chief who had deserted his wife was ready now to
return to her, and behave as a good and faithful
husband, and this he publicly promised. She being
also a Christian convert did likewise solemnly vow to
be faithful and forgiving to him. Brainerd is not far
wrong in estimating this action at its proper value
when he says, " There appeared a clear demonstration
of the power of God s Word upon their hearts. I
suppose a few weeks before the whole world could
not have persuaded this man to a compliance with
Christian rules in this affair."
Others seem to have caught the spirit of their
teacher, and were so happy in their communion with
God, that they cared not how soon the earthly house of
this tabernacle be dissolved that they might be with
Him for evermore. To them Brainerd explained the
doctrine of the resurrection, and they evidently under
stood the glorious hope which lights the Christian s
grave with radiance from the other side.
Another simple incident very strikingly portrays
the effect of the tenderness which the heart felt now
under the power of Christ. An Indian squaw, who
had been converted in those days of blessing, was
found one morning weeping very bitterly. She had
spoken in anger to her child the evening before, and
the thought of it had made her so grieved and sorry
that until daylight she wept over her misdoing. The
poor woman with her enlightened conscience had
reached a point of sensitiveness to which perhaps
many of the more privileged mothers of to-day have
not by any means attained.
As we have seen, these remarkable results of the
A REVIVAL IN SUSQUEHANNAH. 87
work of Brainerd attracted the attention of hfs own
countrymen, and he tells us on more than one occasion
how his congregation was augmented by Presbyterians,
Baptists, Quakers, etc. From these, however, he does
not seem to have had much encouragement, and on
one occasion makes a note of " There being a multi
tude of white people present, I made an address to
them at the close of my discourse to the Indians, but
could not so much as keep them orderly, for scores of
them kept walking and gazing about, and behaved
more indecently than any Indians I ever addressed,
and a view of their abusive conduct so sunk my spirits
that I could scarce go on with my work."
But the love of his own people warmed his heart ;
and those for whose sake he had given up everything
dear in life now clustered round the pale, young,
missionary with gratitude and attachment. The sight
of whole tribes of Indians hungering and thirsting
after the righteousness which is in Christ Jesus, gave
him comfort and joy beyond all expression, and com
pensated him for the weary waiting, the sufferings,
bodily and mentally, the exposure, privations, and
lonely distress he had endured, for at last he saw the
work of the Lord prospering in his hands.
" There are no words like these words ; how blessed they be !
How calming when Jesus says, Come unto Me.
O hear them, my heart, they were spoken to me,
And still they are calling thee Come unto Me.
" I will walk through the world with these words on my heart ;
Through sorrow or sin they shall never depart ;
And when dying I hope He will whisper to me,
* I have loved thee, and saved thee, come, sinner, to Me. 3 "
THE LIGHT SPREADS.
" Before the Saviour s face
The ransom d nations bow,
O erwhelm d at His Almighty grace
For ever now ;
He shows His prints of Love,
They kindle to a flame,
And sound through all the worlds above
The slaughter 7 d Lamb ! "Olivers.
IN the presence of a large assemblage of Indians,
including some white men whose curiosity had
brought them thither, Brainerd baptised a num
ber of native converts, and by this rite received
them after public profession into the Christian Church.
After the spectators had gone he called these believers
to him and gave them suitable counsels as to their
future conduct, and pointed out to them how neces
sary it would be for them to be watchful in view of
their responsibility before God. The little group
appear to have been much softened by this address,
THE LIGHT SPREADS. 89
and as the speaker proceeded they took hold of each
other s hands as a sign of the new covenant of
Christian brotherhood into which they had now
The affection of these people towards their friend
and pastor was very significant. Feeling it to be his
duty to go on a visit to some other Indians at a
distance, Brainerd asked them not only to excuse
him for the sake of others, but to pray earnestly that
his words might be blessed with success. They
cheerfully assented and spent the whole night in
prayer, ceasing not until they went out and saw the
morning star in the sky. His interpreter was one
of this praying band, and he spoke of the time as a
season of much spiritual profit. On that same day
an old Indian, who had been an idolater, and one who
practised many cruel rites, came to Brainerd, and gave
up voluntarily his rattles, which are a kind of musical
instrument used in the festivals and dances, and these
being handed over to the Christian natives were
speedily destroyed. With great simplicity these
people, although in the enjoyment of a sense of God s
favour, were frequently filled with intense sorrow at
the sight of their own unworthiness.
" I asked one of them," says Brainerd, " who had
obtained comfort and given hopeful evidences of
being truly religious, why he now cried ? He replied,
When he thought how Christ was slain like a lamb,
and spilt His blood for sinners, he could not help
crying when he was all alone, and thereupon burst
out into tears and cried again. I then asked his wife
who had likewise been abundantly comforted where
fore she cried ? She answered, She was grieved that
the Indians here would not come to Christ as well as
those at Crossweeksung. I asked her if she found a
heart to pray for them, and whether Christ had
seemed to be near to her of late in prayer as in time
past (which is my usual method of expressing a
sense of the Divine presence). She replied, Yes, He
90 DAVID BRAINERD.
had been near to her, and that at some times when she
had been praying alone, her heart loved to pray so,
that she could not bear to leave the place, but wanted
to stay and pray longer/ "
In the midst of these precious encouragements
there was of course vouchsafed to Brainerd and his
converts the grievous trouble of persecution and
scoffing. Some idolatrous Indians who had come
from a distance continually mocked these penitents
and gibed at their tears ; these also persistently
refused to hear the missionary preach. He visited
the king of the Delaware Indians, receiving promise
of an open door to the work of the Gospel and also
gathered the chiefs together for conversation, that
is when they were sober, for we are told that they
were drunk with the white man s fire-water day after
day. His experiences among. the Indians at Invocanta
Islands cannot be better told than in his own words :
" I visited the Indianv again at Invocanta Islands
and found them almost universally very busy in
making preparations for a great sacrifice and dance.
I had no opportunity to get them together in order
to discourse with them about Christianity by reason of
their being so much engaged about their sacrifice,
My spirits were much sunk with the prospect so very
discouraging and especially seeing I had now no
interpreter but a pagan who was as much attached to
idolatry as any of them (my own interpreter having
left me the day before, being obliged to attend upon
some important business, and knowing that he could
neither speak nor understand the language of these
Indians) so that I was under the greatest disadvan
tages imaginable. However, I attempted to discourse
privately with some of them, but without any appear
ance of success, notwithstanding I still tarried with
" In the evening they met together, near a hundred of
them, and danced round a large fire, having prepared
ten fat deer for the sacrifice, the fat of whose
THE LIGHT SPREADS. QI
inwards they burned in the fire while they were
dancing, and sometimes raised the flame to a prodig
ious height, at the same time yelling and shouting in
such a manner that they might easily have been heard
two miles or more. They continued their sacred
dance all night near the altar; after which they
ate the flesh of the sacrifice, and so retired each one
to his lodging.
" I enjoyed little satisfaction this night, being entirely
alone on the island (as to any Christian company)
and in the midst of this idolatrous revel, and having
walked to and fro till body and mind were pained and
much oppressed, I at length crept into a little crib
made for corn and there slept on the poles.
"Lords Day, 2ist September, 1745. I spent the
day with the Indians on the island. As soon as they
were well up in the morning I attempted to instruct
them, and laboured for that purpose to get them
together, but quickly found they had something else
to do, for near noon they gathered together all their
pow-wows (or conjurors) and set about half-a-dozen of
them to playing their juggling tricks and acting their
frantic, distracted postures, in order to find out why
they were then so sickly upon the island, numbers
of them being at that time disordered by a fever and
bloody flux. In this exercise they were engaged
for several hours making all the wild, ridiculous and
distracted motions imaginable, sometimes singing,
sometimes howling, sometimes extending their hands
to the utmost stretch, spreading all their fingers, and
they seemed to push with them as if they designed
to fright something away, or at least keep it off at
arm s end, sometimes stroking their faces with their
hands, then spouting water as fine as mist ; sometimes
sitting flat on the earth, then bowing down their
faces to the ground, wringing their sides as if in pain
and anguish, twisting their faces, turning up their
eyes, grunting, puffing, etc.
"Their monotonous actions tended to excite ideas of
92 DAVID BRAINERD.
horror, and seemed to have something in them, as
I thought, peculiarly suited to raise the devil, if he
could be raised by anything odd, ridiculous, or fright
ful. Some of them I could observe were much more
fervent and devout in the business than others, and
seemed to chant, peep, and mutter, with a good degree
of warmth and vigour, as if determined to awake and
engage the powers below. I sat at a small distance,
not more than thirty feet from them (though undis
covered), with my Bible in my hand, resolving, if
possible, to spoil their sport, and prevent them receiv
ing any answers from the infernal world, and there
viewed the whole scene. They continued their hideous
charms and incantations for more than three hours,
until they had all wearied themselves ; and although
they had in that space of time taken sundry intervals
of rest, at length broke up, I apprehend without
receiving any answer at all.
" After they had done pow-wowing, I attempted to
discuss with them about Christianity, but they soon
scattered, and gave me no opportunity for anything
of that nature. A view of these things, while I was
entirely alone in the wilderness, destitute of the
society of any one that so much as named the name
of Christ/ greatly sunk my spirits, gave me the most
gloomy turn of mind imaginable, almost stripping rne
of all resolution and hope respecting further attempts
for propagating the Gospel and converting these
pagans, and rendered this the most burdensome and
disagreeable Sabbath that ever I saw. But nothing
I can truly say sunk and distressed me like the loss
of my hope respecting their conversion. This concern
appeared so great, and seemed to be so much my own,
that I seemed to have nothing to do on earth if this
failed. A prospect of the greatest success in the
saving conversion of souls under Gospel-light, would
have done little or nothing towards compensating for
the loss of my hope in this respect ; and my spirits
now were so damped and depressed, that I had no
CHIEF IN FULL DRESS.
THE LIGHT SPREADS. 95
heart nor power to make any further attempts among
them for that purpose, and could not possibly recover
my hope, resolution, and courage, by the utmost of
These Indians, amongst whom he was then visiting,
were very different from those he had left behind, and
their customs as well as their language proved this.
They never buried their dead, but allowed them to
decay in cribs, above ground, then after a time they
would take the bones and carefully wash them, and
bury them in the usual manner. During his wander
ings among these people, he met with a remarkable
priest or reformer, who had been all his life endeavour
ing to restore the ancient religion of the Indians. He
met Brainerd, dressed in full pontificals of bearskins,
and a great mask of wood, one-half painted black and
the other brown, with a most hideous mouth drawn
awry. He danced, clashing his rattle of tortoise-shell,
but never allowed any part of his body, not even his
fingers, to be seen. He was evidently very devout,
and much above the ordinary intelligence of these
Indians, and invited Brainerd to come into his house
or temple to discuss Christianity. He lamented freely
the degenerate condition of the Indians, and said that
their ignorance and wickedness so troubled him some
times, that he went to the woods and lived alone there
for months. "At length," he said, "God comforted
his heart, and showed him what he should do, and
since then he has known God and tried to serve Him,
and loved all men, be they who they would, so as he
never did before." Brainerd thus concludes his
account of the time spent with this earnest seeker
after God : " It was manifest he had a set of religious
notions that he had looked into for himself, and not
taken for granted upon base traditions, and he relished
or disrelished whatever was spoken of a religious
nature, according as it either agreed or disagreed with
his standard. And while I was discussing he would
sometimes say, Now that I like, so God taught me
96 DAVID BRAINERD.
so, and some of his sentiments seemed very just
Yet he utterly denied the being of a devil, and
declared there was no such creature known among the
Indians of old times, whose religion he supposed he
was attempting to revive. He likewise told me that
departed souls all went southward, and that the
difference between the good and bad was this,
that the former were admitted into a beautiful town,
with spiritual walls, or wails agreeable to the nature
of souls, and that the latter would for ever hover near
those walls and in vain attempt to get in. He seemed
to be sincere, honest and conscientious in his own way
and according to his own religious notions, which was
more than I ever saw in any other pagan. I perceived
he was looked upon and derided among most of the
Indians as a precise zealot, that made a needless noise
about religious matters ; but I must say there was
something in his temper and disposition, that looked
more like true religion than anything I ever observed
amongst other heathens.
" But, alas ! how deplorable is the state of the Indians
upon this river ! The brief representation I have here
given of their notions and manners is sufficient to
show that they are led captive by Satan at his will, in
the most quiescent manner, and methinks might like
wise be sufficient to excite the compassion and engage
the prayers of pious souls for these their fellow-men
who sit in the regions of the shadow of death.
Very significant is the remark Brainerd further makes
upon the character and circumstances of these people.
He has been speaking of the fruitlessness of his labour
to convert them to Christianity, and seems to sorrow
fully account for it in these words :
" They live so near the white people that they are
always in the way of strong liquor as well as the ill
examples of nominal Christians, which render it so
unspeakably difficult to treat with them about Christ
Brainerd was glad to get back to Crossweeksung,
THE LIGHT SPREADS. 97
and to meet with his beloved people once more;
" To be with those" he said, " seemed like being
banished from God and all His people ; to be with
these, like being admitted into His family and to the
enjoyment of His Divine presence." They received
him with much rejoicing, and, after his first service
among them, on his retiring, being weary with his
journeyings, they continued in prayer for two hours
by themselves. On another occasion, he gathered
them together to partake with him of the Lord s
Supper; a service of real communion with Christ
and His people.
One day, after he had been preaching to a large
audience, an Indian woman, quite a stranger to him
and who had heard his voice for the first time, came
forward to ask for the prayers of the Christians
on her behalf, and, when she was made happy in a
sense of sins forgiven, she expressed anxiety to return
at once to her home, forty miles distant, in order to
take the good news of salvation to her husband, that
he also might be a Christian. Thus the work pros
pered, and the heart of the worker was abundantly
cheered in his toil. Preaching became a joy to him,
and the services which he held among the Indians
his chief delight. The fears which had oppressed
him as to their conversion, disappeared before this
evident manifestation of the outpouring of the Spirit.
Everywhere were signs of awakening, the squaws
coming forward with their children to hear the good
news of salvation, and old men who had been fore
most in superstitious rites, asking with tears for
forgiveness of their sin.
"The Word of God," he says, "at this time,
seemed to fall upon the assembly with a Divine
power and influence, especially towards the close of
my discourse, there was both a soul melting and
bitter mourning in the audience. The dear Christians
were refreshed and comforted convictions revived in
others and sundry persons newly awakened who had
Qo DAVID BRAINERD.
never been with us before ; and so much of the
Divine presence appeared in the assembly that it
seemed that This was no other than the house of
God and the gate of heaven. "
" With joy, we now approve
The truth of Jesu s love,
God, the universal God,
He, the door hath opened wide,
Faith on heathens hath bestowed,
Washed them in His bleeding side.
** Purged from the stains of sin,
By faith, they enter in ;
Purchased and redeemed of old,
Added to the chosen race,
Now received into the fold,
Heathens sing the Saviour s praise."
A GRATEFUL REVIEW.
" Not from a stock of ours, but Thine,
Jesus Thy flock we feed.
Thy unexhausted grace Divine
Supplies their every need.
But if we trust Thy providence,
Thy power and will to save,
We have the treasure to dispense,
And shall for ever have ! " Charles Wesley.
SUCH remarkable fruits of his ministry among the
Indians naturally impressed Brainerd greatly,
and with the carefulness of judgment which
always characterised his way of looking at
things, he was in no haste to immediately accept every
conversion as a spiritual fact, to be the cause, perhaps,
of lamenting and disappointment afterwards. In one
case of a notorious drunkard he deferred the rite of
baptism for several weeks, to prove the fruits of the
Spirit, and he relates with great satisfaction that of all
IOO DAVID BRAINERD.
the adult Indians he had baptised, none afterwards
failed to give him " comfortable grounds to hope that
God had wrought a special work of grace in their
hearts." He speaks very thankfully of forty-seven
Indians at the Forks of the Delaware, " that through
rich grace, none of them as yet have been left to dis
grace their profession of Christianity, by any scandal
ous or unbecoming behaviour."
And now he sits down in his wigwam to review the
work already done, and discern what special causes of
thankfulness there were in the revival of true religion,
which had just stirred the hearts of his Indians. This
incident is of the deepest import, as showing the spirit
of the man ; here in his journal, written at this time, he
lays bare unreservedly his heart, and with the sincerest
humility disclaims for himself any credit in the success
which had been achieved. He tells us that just before
his strength was almost spent, and so far from think
ing that a measure of encouragement was near at
hand, he was, in face of the apparent futility of his
prayers and labours, beginning to question whether
he had not toiled in vain.
" I was ready to look upon myself as a burden to
the honourable Society that employed and supported
me in this mission, and began to entertain serious
thoughts of giving up my mission, and almost resolved
I would do so at the conclusion of the present year, if
I had then no better prospect of special success in my
work than I had hitherto had. I cannot say I enter
tained these thoughts because I was weary of the
labours and fatigues that necessarily attended my
present business, or because I had right and freedom
in my own mind to turn any other way, but purely
through dejection of spirit, pressing discouragement,
and an apprehension of its being unjust to spend
money consecrated to religious uses, only to civilise
the Indians, and bring them to an external profession
of Christianity. This was all I could then see any
prospect of being effected, while God seemed, as
A GRATEFUL REVIEW. IOI
I thought, evidently to frown upon the design of their
saving conversion, by withholding the convincing and
renewing influences of His blessed Spirit from attend
ing the means I had hitherto used with them to that
This then was his mood, the cloudy and dark day
of a spiritual depression, like the two disciples who,
with the pathos of a disappointed faith, told the Lord,
" and we trusted ; " so Brainerd had to sound the
utmost depths of his weakness and inability until
the manifestation of the power of God was spread
before his eyes. " All hopes in human probabilities
most evidently appeared to fail," he said, and his first
act of gratitude is to praise God that in His mercy
He thus ordained strength out of weakness, that the
glory might not be the servant s but the Master s
He marks how unaccountably, too, this concern
seized the souls of these people. When he came
first among them it was with difficulty he could get
a single Indian man to come and hear the Gospel ; his
first congregation consisted of four women and a few
little children, and yet, in the space of a few weeks,
the crowds began to gather, and the people flocked,
as we have seen, from all parts to listen to his words.
The cry, " What must I do to be saved ?" rang through
every Indian settlement ; " their coming to the place
of our public worship was like Saul and his messengers
coming among the prophets ; they no sooner came
than they prophesied."
Brainerd, like many who have set about the Lord s
business in earnest since, had to work against the
prejudices of his own people. It is very wonderful
how history repeats itself. And we find this faithful
man of God the subject of the criticisms of the luke
warm, and the denunciations of the evil-disposed.
Perhaps these white men felt that their craft was
in danger, and their business, not it may be of a very
creditable sort, would be endangered by the conver-
102 DAVID BRAINERD.
sion of the natives. Just as the Anglo-Indians of
Calcutta depreciated Henry Marty n with scoffing
and scorn, so Brainerd found people objecting to
his earnest and straightforward preaching of the
Gospel. "The Indians were well enough already,"
they said. " There was no need of all this noise about
Christianity ; they would be in no better, no safer,
or happier state than they were already ; " and so
forth. This failing to impede the progress of Brainerd,
they adopted bolder methods, outran him in the field,
and told the Indians that he was a knave, a deceiver,
daily teaching lies ; and that his design was " to
gather together as large a body of them as he pos
sibly could, and then sell them to England for slaves."
They even plied them with strong drink that they
might the better set them in savage prejudice against
the young missionary. But against these opposers of
the faith, its witness was armed by the might of Divine
power, and exclaimed, on seeing how affectionately
the Indians hurried to hear his word, " If God will
work, who can hinder ? "
Brainerd was not an expert linguist, and he very
truly sets it down as an instance of the goodness of
God that he was provided with a competent inter
preter. For a time, certainly, this man, having no
personal interest in the message he repeated, did not
in any way express either the pathos or the power of
the Gospel appeal, but after his conversion a wonder
ful change came in this respect. " It pleased God,"
says Brainerd, " at this season to inspire his mind
with longing desire for the conversion of the Indians,
and to give him admirable zeal and fervency in
addressing them in order thereto. And it is
remarkable that when I was favoured with special
assistance in any work and enabled to speak with
more than common freedom, fervency and power,
under a lively and affecting sense of Divine things, he
was usually affected in the same manner almost
instantly, and seemed at once quickened and enabled
ON THE BANKS OF THE SUSQUEHANNAH.
A GRATEFUL REVIEW. IO5
to speak in the same pathetic language and under the
same influence as I did. And a surprising energy
often accompanied the Word at such seasons, so that
the faces of the whole assembly would be apparently
changed almost in an instant, and tears and sobs
become common among them." So that while
Brainerd cannot claim, as he says, "any gift of
tongues," he had the immense advantage of an
interpreter who had the heart and understanding to
communicate the doctrines of Christianity.
Then, as now, there were in the minds of people
strong prejudices against influencing the minds of the
hearers by statements concerning the terrors of God s
wrath and indignation against sinners. " But God has
left no room," says Brainerd, " for this objection in the
present case, this work of grace having been begun and
carried on by almost one continued strain of Gospel
invitation to perishing sinners." Not that he hesitated
to place before them " the exceeding sinfulness of sin,"
and the consequences thereof if unrepented of. These
old Puritans had a habit of calling a spade a spade,
and believed in a real hell and a real devil just as truly
as they proclaimed a real Christ and a real heaven.
But still, to the disappointment of many carping
lookers on, the extraordinary spiritual awakening of
these Indians was clearly not due to any terrifying
teaching. The remark Brainerd makes upon this is
very true and frank.
" This great awakening, this surprising concern was
never excited by any harangues of terror, but always
appeared most remarkable when I insisted upon the
compassions of a dying Saviour, the plentiful provisions
of the Gospels, and the free offers of Divine grace to
needy distressed sinners. Nor would I be understood
to insinuate that such religious concern might be
justly suspected as not being genuine and from a
Divine influence, because produced by the preaching
of terror, for this is, perhaps, God s more usual way of
awakening sinners, and appears entirely agreeable to
IO6 DAVID BRAINERD.
Scripture and sound reason ; but what I meant here
to observe is, that God saw fit to employ and bless
milder means for the effectual awakening of these
Indians, and thereby obviated the fore-mentioned
objection, which the world might otherwise have had
a more plausible colour of making." He notes the
absence of undue excitement in the meetings, and,
although many have trembled and some been stricken
speechless under the power of the Word, there were
no convulsions and bodily agonies which, at that time
at least, were common to great religious revivals.
There was a marked reality and thoroughness in
these convictions of sin.
Across the wide interval of a century and a-half we
hear Brainerd thanking God that in his work the
drink, " their darling vice," the sin that easily besets
them, is losing its masterhood over the souls and
bodies of the people by the progress of Christian
principle. They began to pay their debts, to lay
aside all censoriousness of manner, to live with each
other in brotherly love, and, above all, to put on
charity. "A conquest of sin by the working of the Holy
Ghost, and the cultivation of those Christian graces
which make up the character of the Scriptural Christ
ian, these things they followed after with great joy.
Their consolations did not incline them to lighten, but,
on the contrary, were attended by solemnity, and often
times with tears, and an apparent brokenness of heart.
... In some respects some of them have been sur
prised themselves, and have with concern observed to
me, When their hearts have been glad (which is a
phrase they commonly make use of to express spirit
ual joy) they could not help crying for all. "
Thus in this brief retrospect Brainerd finds place
for abundant gratitude. Up to this point he had
ridden over three thousand miles, and passed through
hardships and trials of faith and patience, which are
but faintly hinted at in his journal. He tells us how
he had constantly to go away from his people in order
A GRATEFUL REVIEW. IO?
to reach the towns where he might represent the work,
and ask for it financial support.
For a long time Brainerd felt that he must have
another worker with him, but failed to meet with the
man of his choice. He then again set his mind upon
obtaining sufficient funds to build a school and get
the children in.
In one of these journeys he informs us that he
reached a ferry just too late to cross on account of
the tempestuous wind and waves, and had to spend
the night in the ferry-house amid drinking people,
who freely used the most profane language. He sat
down and began to write in spite of the disturbances,
and his mind was filled with calm, but he " thanked
God that he was not likely to spend an eternity in
And now, possibly writing the very words under
such untoward circumstances, he commits his thoughts
to paper as to the work in which he was engaged.
" As these poor pagans stood in need of having
( line upon line and precept upon precept/ in order to
their being instructed and grounded in the principles
of Christianity, so I preached publicly, and taught
from house to house almost every day for whole weeks
together when I was with them. My public dis
courses did not then make up one-half of my work,
while there were so many constantly coming to me
with that important inquiry, What must we do to
be saved ? and opening to me the various exercises
of their minds. And yet I can say (to the praise of
rich grace) that the apparent success with which my
labours were crowned has unspeakably more than com
pensated for the labour itself, and was likewise a good
means of supporting and carrying me through busi
ness and fatigues which it seems my nature would
have sunk under without such an encouraging pro
spect. But although this success has afforded unalter-
ing support, comfort and thankfulness, yet in this
season I have found great need of assistance in my
108 DAVID BRAINERD.
work, and have been much oppressed for want of one
to bear a part of my labours and hardships. * May
the Lord of the harvest send forth other labourers
into this part of His harvest, that those who sit in
darkness may see great light, and that the whole
earth may be filled with the knowledge of Himself! "
" O Lord of life and glory,
Have we not ears to hear
The sounds that rise before Thee,
To mock Thy love and tears ?
Do we not hear the crying
For help from hearts and homes,
And can we sit denying
The help our Saviour owns ?
" O Lord of life and glory,
Our minds are at Thy feet,
That we may grasp the meaning
Of Calvary s wondrous feat.
To nations now in slumber
We have to take the light,
Before the judgment thunder
Shall end our war for right."
THE SANDS RUNNING OUT.
" With force of arms we nothing can,
Full soon were we down-ridden ;
But for us fights the proper Man,
Whom God Himself hath bidden.
Ask ye, who is this same ?
Christ Jesus is His name,
The Lord Sabaoth s Son ;
He and no other one
Shall conquer in the battle." Luther.
THE opening of the new year of grace one
thousand seven hundred and forty - six
brought to the heart of Brainerd much self-
examination, and led him to consecrate him
self afresh to God and His service. What he had
done already began to tell upon him, and, while the
happy manifestation of a blessing on his work had
inspired him with new hope, it was only too evident
to him that the end must soon come. Living as one
whose span of life was speedily shortening, his mind
was filled with solicitude for the souls of his Indians,
and a desire to expend every remaining hour in labour
for them. While many would have recognised in
1 10 DAVID BRAINERD.
signs of physical break-up a sufficient reason for
retiring from the field, Brainerd urged himself on to
increasing effort. The toils of the past gave him little
satisfaction ; he was always depreciating any thing he
had done or suffered in the cause. " God has carried
me through numerous trials and labours in the past,"
he writes in his diary. " He has amazingly supported
my feeble frame, for having obtained help of God
I continue to this day. O that I might live nearer to
God this year than I did the last ! The business to
which I have been called, and which I have been
enabled to go through, I know has been as great as
nature could bear up under, and what would have
sunk and overcome me quite, without special support.
But alas ! alas ! though I have done the labours and
endured the trials, with what spirit have I done the
one and borne the other ? How cold has been the
frame of my heart oftentimes ! and how little have I
sensibly eyed the glory of God in all my doings and
sufferings ! I have found that I could have no peace
without filling up all my time with labours, and thus
necessity has been laid upon me. Yea, in that re
spect, I have loved to labour, but the misery is, I could
not sensibly labour for God as I could have done.
May I, for the future, be enabled more sensibly to
make the glory of God my all ! "
Once again his enemies came about him, and
Brainerd was in danger from those of his own nation.
Occasionally news from the outer world reached him,
and from this he found that his aims were deliberately
perverted, and many were making mischief so that
they might hinder him in his work.
One day he tells us how, coming away from public
worship, tidings greatly distressed him, for he was
informed that he was represented to be a Roman
Catholic in disguise, and that he was only instigating
the Indians to rise against the English. This rumour
made some immediately hold aloof, and others were
quite willing for proper steps being taken to arrest
THE SANDS RUNNING OUT. Ill
him for punishment. His answer was clear upon the
point ; he had strictly " minded his own business," he
says, " and had nothing to do with parties and sects,
preaching Christianity pure and simple," neither
inviting to nor excluding from any meeting any, of
any sort or persuasion whatsoever. Again he finds
refuge in prayer, and quiets himself with the consola
tions of God s Word. He is much refreshed in his
own soul during his expositions to the Indians, and
on opening the forty-sixth Psalm he felt that he could
confide in the power and protection of the Almighty,
even though his enemies should slander his character
and seek to put him to death as a traitor to his
earthly king. His feelings under this reproach are
vividly expressed in the notes he wrote at the time,
and he there threw a gleam of light upon the pro
bable causes which have led him into such a path of
persecution. He closely examines himself, and is
jealous for the honour of God, and the success of His
work among those poor heathen. " My spirits were
still much sunk with what I heard the day before of
my being suspected to be engaged in the Pretender s
interest , it grieved me that after there had been so
much evidence of a glorious work of grace among
these poor Indians, as that the most carnal man could
not but take notice of the great change made among
them, so many poor souls should still suspect the
whole to be only a Popish plot, and so cast an awful
reproach on this blessed work of the Divine Spirit,
and at the same time wholly exclude themselves from
receiving any benefit by this Divine influence. This
put me upon searching whether I had ever dropped
anything inadvertently that might give occasion to
any to suspect that I was stirring up the Indians
against the English ; and could think of nothing
unless it was my attempting sometimes to vindicate
the rights of the Indians, and complaining of the
horrid practice of making the Indians drunk, and
then cheating them out of their lands and other pro-
112 DAVID BRAINERD.
parties ; and now I remember I had done this with
too much warmth of spirit, which much distressed me ;
thinking that it might possibly prejudice them against
this work of grace, to their everlasting destruction.
God, I believe, did me good by this trial, which
seemed to humble me, and show me the necessity of
watchfulness, and of being wise as a serpent/ as
well as * harmless as a dove. This exercise led me
often to the throne of grace, and there I found some
support, though I could not get the burden wholly
In his intercourse with the Indians he was con
stantly cheered with finding that his words had been
a comfort and help to this people. One poor woman
came to tell him in her broken English how she
obtained release from all her fears, and was able to
rejoice in being by Christ delivered from all her sins.
Here is the substance of the conversation between the
missionary and this simple and believing soul.
" Me try, me try save myself, but my strength be
all gone, could not let me stir bit further. Den last,
me forced let Jesus Christ alone, send me hell if He
" But you were not willing to go to hell, were you ?
" * Could not me help it. My heart becomed wicked
for all. Could not me make her good ?
" I asked her how she got out of this case.
" By-by my heart be grad desperately.
" I asked her why her heart was glad.
" * Grad my heart Jesus Christ do what He please
with me. Den me tink, grad my heart Jesus Christ
send me to hell. Did not me care where He put me,
me to be Him for all. "
Brainerd explains that this poor woman held to it
that if it was the will of the Lord that she should go
anywhere, to suffer anything, however terrible, she
was satisfied. Some days afterwards, however, she
obtained a clearer light on the will of God, and while
quite ready still to rejoice in affliction, she entered
THE SANDS RUNNING OUT.
into the joy of those who know Christ as a perfect
and sufficient Saviour from all sin. On the day of
her baptism she expressed her gratitude to the kind
Christians in Scotland who had sent Mr. Brainerd to
preach to the Indians ; she said, " her heart loved these
good people so that she could scarce help praying for
them all night."
One of the most interesting cases of conversion
which Brainerd notes in his journal is that of a very
aged woman, who appeared childish and broken in
strength, and who came to him for spiritual advice.
From such a one he was not prepared to hear any
thing like a rational idea on the subject of religion.
But in this he was disappointed. After being led by
the hand into his room, she tried to make him under
stand the anguish of her soul. Her chief distress was,
she told Brainerd, that she should never find Christ.
As he knew she had never been instructed in Christ
ian doctrine he pressed her with questions in order to
find out the real cause of her distress. Her answer
was to this effect :
" She had heard me preach many times, but never
knew anything about it, never felt it in her heart/
till the last Sabbath, and then it came, she said, all
in, as if a needle had been thrust into her heart, since
which time she had had no rest day or night. She
added that on the evening before Christmas, a number
of Indians being together at the house where she was,
and discoursing about Christ, their talk pricked her
heart, so that she could not sit up, but fell down on
her bed, at which time she went away (as she expressed
it) and felt as if she dreamed, and yet is confident she
did not dream. When she was thus gone she saw two
paths, one appeared very broad and crooked, and that
turned to the left hand. The other appeared straight
and very narrow, and ^towent up the hill to the right
hand. She travelled, she said, for some time up the
narrow right-hand path till at length something
seemed to obstruct her journey. She sometimes
called it darkness, and then described it otherwise,
and seemed to compare it to a block or bar. She
then remembered what she had heard me say about
striving to enter in at the strait gate (although she
OLD INDIAN WOMAN AND CHILD.
took little notice of it at the time when she heard me
discourse on the subject), and thought she would climb
over this bar. But just as she was thinking of this she
came back again, as she termed it, meaning that she
THE SANDS RUNNING OUT. 115
came to herself, whereupon her soul was exceedingly
distressed, apprehending that she had since turned
back and forsaken Christ, and that, therefore, there
was no hope of mercy for her."
This remarkable statement, by one evidently sin
cere, led Brainerd to ask further questions, believing
as he did that it was one of the devices of Satan to
deceive her and make her believe that she was under
real conviction of sin. But ere long he was satisfied
that this Indian mother, bowed down with the weight
of fourscore years, really and truly was under the
strivings of the Holy Ghost, and had been thus
divinely taught as to her way of salvation. Before
long she, too, was able to enter the strait gate, and
become a pilgrim to the heavenly mansions thus late
Cries and lamentations met him at every turn as he
talked to the people about the love of God and Christ
Jesus. " It was an amazing season of power amongst
them," he says, " and seemed as if God had * bowed
the heavens and come down. So astonishingly pre
valent was the operation upon old as well as young,
that it seemed as if none would be left in a secure and
natural state, but that God was now about to convert
all the world. And I was ready to think then that
I should never again despair of the conversion of any
man or woman living, be they who or what they would.
It is impossible to give a just and lively description of
the appearance of things at this season, at least such
as to convey a bright and adequate idea of the effects
of this influence. A number might have been seen
rejoicing that God had not taken away the principal
influence of His blessed Spirit from this place.
Refreshed to see so many striving to enter in at
the strait gate, and animated with such concern for
them, they wanted to push them forward, as some of
them expressed it. At the same time numbers, both
of men and women, old and young, might be seen in
tears, and some in anguish of spirit, appearing in their
Il6 DAVID BRAINERD.
very countenances, like condemned malefactors turned
towards the place of execution with a heavy solicitude
sitting on their faces ; so that there seemed here (as
I thought) a lively emblem of the solemn day of
accounts, mixture of heaven and hell, of joy and
anguish inexpressible. The concern and religious
affection was such that I could not pretend to have
any formal religious exercise among them, but spent
the time in discoursing to one and another, as I
thought most proper and seasonable for each, and
sometimes addressed them all together, and finally
concluded with prayer. Such were their circumstances
at this season that I could scarce have half -an- hour s
rest from speaking from about half-an-hour before
twelve o clock (at which time I began public worship)
till past seven at night."
He made at this time several visits to Elizabeth-
town to see the " correspondents," as the representa
tives of the Missionary Society were called. Here he
discussed many plans for the enlargement of the work,
and particularly his desire to establish Indian towns
or settlements, to found a little colony, which should
be a " mountain of holiness," but we have no record
that in this aim he was successful. He had an unex
pected trouble at the end of March of this year, in the
sudden illness of his schoolmaster with pleurisy. Far
away from medical assistance, the burden of nursing
and tending the sick man fell upon him, and this duty
he performed with infinite tenderness and self-sacrifice.
He watched him constantly, sleeping on the floor at
night that he might be ready if wanted. His own
health began again to fail as a consequence, and his
only solace was to snatch a few moments of the night
in communion amid the silence of the woods.
"Alas, my days pass away as chaff!" he cries in
one of these meditations, " it is but little I do or can
do that turns to any account, and it is my constant
misery and burden that I am so fruitless in tfce vine
yard of the Lord. O that I were spirit, that I might
THE SANDS RUNNING OUT. 1 17
be active for God ! This (I think) more than any
thing else makes me long that this corruptible might
put on incorruption, and this mortal put on immor
tality. God deliver me from clogs, fetters, and a
body of death that impede my service for Him."
This desire to fly away, not for rest but for increased
activity, was to be satisfied ere long. The frail tene
ment was not to abide much longer, and for Brainerd
the day of deliverance was not far off. Somewhat
wearied with incessant travelling, he expresses a wish
at this time to settle among his people at the Indian
territory. This he felt he might be justified in desir
ing, seeing that the congregations gathered from time
to time consisted of those who by his ministry had
been called from darkness to light.
" I never, since I began to preach," he says, " could
feel any freedom to enter into other men s labours,
and settle down in the ministry where the Gospel was
preached before. I never could make that appear to
be my province ; when I felt any disposition to con
sult my ease and comfort, God has never given me
any liberty in that respect, either since or for some
years before I began to preach. But God having
increased my labours, and made me instrumental in
gathering a church for Him among the Indians, I was
ready to think it might be His design to give me a
quiet settlement and a stated home of my own."
This is perhaps the only time in his journal where
he mentions a personal preference ; but this perfectly
natural desire was not to be fulfilled, and he again
quite patiently and willingly accepted the providential
working out of the Divine plan, however much
human nature was contradicted thereby. He con
sidered it clear that he was marked out for solitariness
and hardship, and should be destitute of house and
home comforts, which he was delighted to see others
enjoy, calling himself by Divine grace a "pilgrim
hermit," and says, that although as quick as any in
the appreciation of the joys of human companion-
Il8 DAVID BRAINERD.
ship, yet all these, " compared with the value and
preciousness of an enlargement of Christ s kingdom,
vanished like the stars before the rising sun." Falling
on his knees in presence of this disappointment he
once more utterly resigns himself and all that he
counts dear to the will of God. " Farewell ! " he cries,
" farewell friends and earthly comforts, the dearest of
them all, the very dearest, if the Lord calls for it ;
adieu, adieu, I will spend my life to my latest
moments in caves and dens of the earth if the kingdom
of Christ may be thereby advanced."
In this complete consecration there was doubtless
a human love laid on the altar, " the very dearest "
may have referred to a secret attachment with the
daughter of his great friend and literary executor,
Rev. Jonathan Edwards. This Jerusha was a young
girl, ripe in Christian experience and full of a similar
spirit to that of Brainerd. Not even her name
appears in any of his private diaries or papers, but
we have the evidence of her father for the fact of their
mutual love for each other. We shall meet her at
his deathbed, to which sacred spot,
"Blessed beyond the common walk of men,
Quite on the verge of home,"
we shall now speedily pass with hushed footsteps and
" Oh, lightest burden, sweetest yoke !
It lifts, it bears my happy soul,
It giveth wings to this poor heart ;
My freedom is Thy grand control.
" Upon God s will I lay me down,
As child upon its mother s breast ;
No silken couch or softest bed,
Could ever give me such deep rest."
THE DAY DRAWS TO A CLOSE.
" Christ hath the foundation laid,
And Christ shall build me up ;
Surely I shall soon be made
Partaker of my hope ;
Author of my faith He is,
He its finisher shall be ;
Perfect love shall seal me His,
To all eternity." Wesley.
IT will have been observed that Brainerd, while so
fully engrossed with his spiritual interest in the
Indians, was also ready to stand as their practical
friend whenever help was needed. His unvarying
immunity from any personal danger, even when alone
and unarmed he wandered at midnight through the
solitary woods, may be accounted for partly by the
fact that he was felt to be, throughout all the tribes,
their friend. All this loyalty to his poor clients
aroused the jealousy of the whites, but still the young
120 DAVID BRAINERD.
missionary stood by the redskin and sheltered him
from oppression and wrong.
An instance of this is seen in his action where he
found the Indian communities had run into grievous
debt with the white man on account of the strong
drink which he, alas ! all too liberally supplied to them.
The defaulters were in many cases speedily arrested,
and an attempt was made to take from them their
hunting grounds to release the debt. Brainerd knew
that this must mean their ruin, and immediately con
ferred with the representatives of the Society which
employed him, in order to advance the Indians some
funds so that their lands might not pass out of their
possession. Another reason which impelled Brainerd
to bring help in this direction was the long hoped for
establishment of a Christian Indian congregation or
town. He tells us that on one occasion the sum he
disbursed for this purpose was eighty-five pounds, five
shillings, which seems ridiculously small now-a-days
but was a considerable sum in the times in which he
His schoolmaster having now recovered we note
that thirty children or young persons are found under
tuition every day, and in the evening fifteen married
people are only too glad to avail themselves of a little
free education. Brainerd seems to have paid consider
able attention to this branch of the work ; one day he
tells us that he distributed a dozen primers among
his people, and it was his custom to frequently
catechise them upon their progress in study.
The spiritual work, which of course was his chief
concern, continued to show signs of a real living
success. He adopted the wise method of taking with
him on his missionary journeys half-a-dozen of his
more earnest and capable Christian converts, and
these were of great assistance. But in those Indian
forests, in the midst of those clusters of wigwams,
Brainerd found just the same variety of reception of
the truth as St Paul in the classic and philosophic
THE DAY DRAWS TO A CLOSE. 121
Athens. "Some of them," says he, "who had, in
times past, been extremely averse to Christians now
behaved soberly, and some others laughed and
mocked. However, the Word of God fell with such
weight and power that sundry seemed to be stunned,
and expressed a willingness to hear me again on
these matters. Afterwards prayed with and made
an address to the white people present, and could not
but observe some visible effects of the word, such as
tears and sobs, among them. After public worship
spent some time and took pains to answer those that
mocked, of the truth and importance of what I had
been insisting upon, and so endeavoured to awaken
their attention to Divine truths. And had reason to
think, from what I observed then and afterwards,
that my endeavours took considerable effect upon one
of the worst of them. Those few Indians then present,
who used to be my hearers in these parts (some
having removed from hence to Crossweeksung),
seemed more kindly disposed toward and glad to see
me again : they had been so much attacked by some
of the opposing pagans that they were almost
ashamed or afraid to manifest their friendship."
Of his own people Brainerd speaks with evident
encouragement. " I know of no assembly of Christ
ians where there seems to be so much of the presence
of God, where brotherly love so much prevails, and
where I take so much delight in the public worship of
God, in the general as in my own congregation,
although not more than nine months ago they were
worshipping devils and dumb idols, under the power
of pagan darkness and superstition. Amazing change
this ! effected by nothing less than Divine power and
grace ! This is the doing of the Lord, and it is
justly marvellous in our eyes !
Nothing rejoiced the heart of this good and faithful
servant more than to see in his people the beautiful
fruit of a new heart and redeemed nature. He was
ready at any time to listen to the yearning of these
122 DAVID BRAINERD.
poor Indians for instruction, and literally carried out
the Scripture admonition, " Rejoice with them that
do rejoice, and weep with them that weep." With
penitents he was patient and affectionate ; knowing in
his own heart what self-abasement was, he could
enter into the experience of those, who, awakened to
a sense of their own unworthiness, were seeking the
Saviour of sinners. One day after public worship
had concluded, Brainerd was accompanied home
wards by a large concourse of anxious people who
filled his house and prayed for more of his prayers
and teaching. He was then greatly filled with glad
ness at the sight of one poor Indian woman who had
found Christ, and was " filled with joy unspeakable,
and full of glory." In the midst of the people she
continually broke out in crying for very joy and
praising God, sometimes in English, sometimes in
Indian, but always with fervour. She longed to be
gone, to depart and be with Jesus, which she felt would
be far better. "O blessed Lord/ 5 she cried aloud,
" do come, do come ! O do take me away, do let me
die and go to Jesus Christ ! I am afraid if I live
I shall sin again ! O do let me die now ! O dear
Jesus do come ! I cannot stay, I cannot stay ! " The
longing to be " absent from the body " which this
Indian woman expressed with such fervour, arose
from such a dread of sin, that she felt her safety
against grieving her Saviour was in freedom from the
temptations of life and mortality. After a time
Brainerd spoke to her with words of encouragement
and tenderness, asking whether Christ was not now
sweet to her soul.
She turned upon him eyes brimming with happy
tears, and yet speaking in tones of lowliness and
humility, said : " I have many times heard you speak
of the goodness and sweetness of Christ, that He was
better than all the world. But O ! I knew nothing
what you meant, I never believed you ! I never
believed you ! But now I know it is true ! "
THE DAY DRAWS TO A CLOSE. 123
" Do you see," said Brainerd, " enough in Christ for
the greatest of sinners ? "
With an ecstasy of emotion the woman answered :
" O ! enough, enough ! for all the sinners of the
world if they would but come."
Then at his request, she turned round to the Indian
men and women in the crowd who had been listening
to her words with much interest and weeping. " Oh !
there is enough," she cried, "enough in Christ for
you if you would but come ! O strive, strive to give
up your hearts to Him ! "
About this convert Brainerd makes some very
interesting and instructive notes in his journal, which
are well worth quotation.
" Of all the persons I have seen under spiritual
exercise I scarce ever saw one so bowed and broken
under convictions of sin and misery (or what is usually
called a preparatory work\ than this woman. Nor
scarce any who seemed to have a greater acquaintance
with her own heart than she had. She would
frequently complain to me of the hardness and
rebellion of her heart. Would tell me her heart rose
and quarrelled with God, when she thought He would
do with her as He pleased, and send her to hell not
withstanding her prayers, good graces, etc. ; that her
heart was not willing to come to Christ for salvation,
but tried everywhere else to help.
"And as she seemed to be remarkably sensible of
her stubbornness and contrariety to God, under convic
tion, so she appeared to be no less remarkably bowed
and reconciled to Divine sovereigntybefoYe she obtained
any relief or comfort. . . . Since which time she has
seemed constantly to breathe the spirit and temper
of the new creature, crying after Christ, not through
fear of hell as before, but with strong desire after Him
as her only satisfying portion, and has many times
wept and sobbed bitterly, because (as she apprehended)
she did not, and could not, love Him. When I have
sometimes asked her why she appeared so sorrowful,
124 DAVID BRAINERD.
and whether she thought it was because she was
afraid of hell ? she would answer, No, I am not
distressed about that, but my heart is so wicked that
I cannot love Christ, and thereupon burst into tears.
But though this has been the habitual frame of her
mind for several weeks together, so that the exercise
of grace appeared evident to others, yet she seemed
wholly insensible of it herself, and never had any
remarkable comfort and sensible satisfaction till this
"This sweet and surprising ecstasy appeared to
spring from a true spiritual discovery of the glory,
ravishing beauty and excellency of Christ, and not
from any gross imaginary notions of His human
nature, such as that of seeing Him in such place or
posture, as hanging on the cross, as bleeding, dying,
as gently smiling and the like ; which delusions some
have been carried away with. Nor did it rise from
sordid, selfish apprehensions of her having any benefit
whatsoever conferred on her, but from a view of His
personal excellency and transcendent loveliness, which
drew forth those vehement desires of enjoying Him
she now manifested, and made her long * to be absent
from the body and present with the Lord. The
attendants of this ravishing comfort were such as
abundantly discerned its spring to be Divine, and that
it was truly a joy in the Holy Ghost. Now she
received Divine truths as living realities, and could
say, I know these things are so, I feel they are true.
Now her soul was resigned to the Divine will in the
most tender points, so that when I said to her, what
if God should take away your husband from you
(who was very sick) how do you think you could bear
that ? She replied, He belongs to God and not to
me, He may do with him just as He pleases. Now
she had the most tender sense of the evil of sin, and
discovered the utmost aversion to it, longing to die
that she might be delivered from it. Now she could
freely trust her all with God for time and eternity.
THE DAY DRAWS TO A CLOSE. 125
And when I questioned her how she could be wishing
to die and leave her little infant, and what she thought
would become of it in that case, she answered,
God will take care of it. It belongs to Him, He
will take care of it. Now she appeared to have the
most humbling sense of her own meanness and
unworthiness, her weakness and inability to preserve
herself from sin and to persevere in the way of holi
ness, crying, If I live I shall sin. "
Changes have taken place in Christian theology
since those Puritan days and the old paths are some
of them quite grass grown, but this brief page of a
spiritual history shows that the power of the Gospel
was efficacious then, as it is now, for changing
the heart and revivifying the life, so that " old things
are passed away and all things have become new."
David Brainerd was not the man to be satisfied with
an external and emotional phase of religion, he
catechised his converts with a view to finding how
much and how deep was the real spiritual knowledge
they possessed. Mere religious concern, he observes,
is not true religion. He notes with satisfaction that
the pagans awakened by the preaching of Christ and
Him crucified, "seemed at once to put off their
savage rudeness and pagan manners, and become
sociable, orderly, and humane in their carnage."
When once the light of a Christian faith was
kindled in their hearts, they seem to have had a
perfect fear of lapsing back into their old state of sin.
An instance of this is seen in their conduct one after
noon, when Brainerd had been explaining to his little
flock of Christians what was the discipline enjoined
by the New Testament in treating offenders in the
Church. Upon his showing them that after repeated
effort on the part of the brethren to restore one who
had been a castaway, he must be treated as a heathen
man or pagan without part or lot in the matter,
they were much affected, even alarmed. Of this,
they seemed to have the most awful apprehensions; a
126 DAVID BRAINERD.
state of heathenism out of which they were so lately
brought appearing very dreadful to them. They
frequently met together for worship amongst them
selves, when an old chief, who had received the light,
spoke earnestly of Christ s power to save.
On another occasion, he brought his people
together for the ordinance of the Lord s Supper,
having previously set apart a whole day for fasting
and prayer. He spoke to them of the obligations of
Christian fellowship, besought them to be humble in
their walk before God and avoid the careless indiffer
ence which crept over some who had stood with them
once and seemed at that time deeply impressed,
praying earnestly that God would preserve them from
the evil attempts of their enemies to disperse them.
Brainerd bade them join him in partaking of the
symbols of the passion of the Lord. It seems to have
been a season of peculiar blessing, for he tells us
"This solemn transaction was attended with much
gravity and seriousness, and, at the same time, with
utmost readiness, freedom, and cheerfulness, and a
religious union and harmony of soul seemed to
crown the whole solemnity."
In the month of May, 1747, Brainerd visited
Northampton, and, in consequence of some graver
symptoms in his disease, pushed on to the house of
his friend, Jonathan Edwards, where one Dr. Mather
was called in to see him. The physician, after
examination, told him frankly of his condition, that
he was in a confirmed consumption from which
he had not the least chance of recovery. Such a
statement to most men would mean a startled fear
and deep depression, but to this man of God, it
brought no discomposure nor interfered with the
cheerfulness of his heart and conversation. Opening
his diary a few days afterwards, he makes the follow
ing comment upon his condition :
" My attention was greatly engaged and my soul so
drawn forth, this day, by what I heard of the exceed-
THE DAY DRAWS TO A CLOSE. . I2Q
ing preciousness of the saving grace of God s Spirit,
that it almost overcame my body in my weak state.
I saw that true grace is exceeding precious indeed,
that it is very rare, and that there is but a very small
degree of it, even where the reality of it is to be
found ; at least, I saw this to be my case. In the
preceding week, I enjoyed some comfortable seasons
of meditation. One morning, the cause of God
appeared exceeding precious to me, the Redeemer s
kingdom is all that is valuable to me on earth, and
I could not but long for the promotion of it in the
world. I saw also that this cause is God s, that He
has an infinitely greater regard and concern for it than
I could possibly have, that if I have any true love to
His blessed interest, it is only a drop derived from the
ocean ; hence, I was ready to lift up my heart with
joy, and conclude, Well, if God s cause be so dear
and precious to Him, He will promote it. And thus
I did, as it were, rest in God ; that surely He would
promote that which was agreeable to His own will,
though the time when must still be left to His
His physicians, possibly recognising that his habit
of incessant activity was a necessity of his life, now
gave him the somewhat strange advice that, if he
would continue riding as much as possible, it would
tend to prolong his life. This recommendation he
acted upon most literally ; from that moment till his
death he was constantly in the saddle, and swiftly
passing from place to place. One would have thought
that rest and quiet would have been much more bene
ficial to the over-strung, over-wearied missionary ; but
as he felt the light of life gradually burning low, he
redoubled his exertion to proclaim the Gospel far
and wide before the call came. But the effort caused
him exquisite suffering. " There is no rest," he cries,
" but in God, fatigues of body and anxieties of mind
attend us both in town and country ; no place is
130 DAVID BRAINERD.
Here is his record of an incidertt in his travels,
which nearly made him speedily "finish his course
"On Thursday, i8th June, I was taken exceeding
ill, and brought to the gates of death, by the breaking
of small ulcers in my lungs, as my physicians sup
posed. In this extreme weak state I continued for
several weeks, and was frequently reduced so low as
to be utterly speechless and not able so much as to
whisper a word ; and, even after I had so far revived
as to walk about the house, and to step out of doors,
I was exercised every day with a faint turn, which
continued usually four or five hours, at which times,
though I was not so utterly speechless but that I
could say Yes or No, yet I could not converse at all,
nor speak one sentence, without making stops for
breath ; and divers times in this season my friends
gathered round my bed, to see me breathe my last,
which they looked for every moment as I myself
" How I was the first day or two of my illness, with
regard to the exercise of reason, I scarcely know, I
believe I was somewhat shattered by the violence of
the fever at times, but the third day of my illness, and
constantly afterwards for four or five weeks together,
I enjoyed as much serenity of mind and clearness of
thought as perhaps I ever did in my life, and I think
my mind never penetrated with so much ease and
freedom into Divine things as at this time, and I never
felt so capable of demonstrating the truth of many
important doctrines of the Gospel as now."
Thus, in the midst of great physical weakness and
pain, Brainerd s soul held communion with his God.
It was natural that, when no longer running from
place to place, his mind, so set on the work of the
Lord, should outrun him, and that his thoughts and
prayers should be constantly with his beloved flock in
the Indian forests, at the Forks of the Delaware. He
thought much of a man, who had been a very popular
THE DAY DRAWS TO A CLOSE. 131
conjuror and pow-wow, and who, after following his
juggling tricks and charming the people with his
superstitions, had heard the Word under the ministry
of Brainerd, and become perfectly unhappy on account
of his sins. His power of conjuration suddenly left
him, he could no longer perform the tricks and jug
gling which had made him such an attraction to the
people, and with a wounded spirit was for ever crying,
" I can never do any more to save myself, all done for
ever, I can do no more ; my heart is dead, I can never
help myself, I must go to hell." After being thus
dejected for a long space, he came to Brainerd with
the eager inquiry, " When would I preach again ? " for
he wanted to hear the Word of God every day.
" But," said the Missionary, " I thought you said your
heart was dead, and all was done ? " His reply was, " I
love to hear you speak about Christ for all." Although
miserable and uncomforted himself, he had a strange
desire to see others converted. " I would have others
come to Christ, if I go to hell myself," was his remark,
as for himself, he still persisted that all that he did
signified nothing at all.
" But," says Brainerd, " after he had continued in this
frame of mind more than a week, while I was dis
coursing publicly, he seemed to have a lively soul-
refreshing view of the excellency of Christ and the
way of salvation by Him, which melted him to tears
and filled him with admiration, comfort, satisfaction
and praise to God. Since, he has offered to be a
humble, devout and affectionate Christian, serious
and exemplary in his conversation, frequently com
plaining of his barrenness, his want of spiritual
warmth, life and activity, and yet frequently favoured
with quickening and refreshing influences. In all
respects as far as I am able to judge, he bore the
marks and characters of one created anew in Christ
to good works. "
Many of the thoughts which shone out so lumin
ously in the mind of Brainerd during this time of
132 DAVID BRAINERD.
prostration, are quite as applicable to the experiences
of the Christians of to-day. He passed in review the
constant strife between good and evil in the world,
and asked himself why the Church was so powerless
and inactive. He trembled for the fate of those whose
self-confidence was the chief characteristic of their
" These things I saw," he writes, " with great clear
ness, when I was thought to be dying, and God gave
me great concern for His Church and interest in the
world at this time ; not so much because the late
remarkable influence upon the minds of the people
was abated, as because that false religion those
hearts of imaginations and wild and selfish commo
tions of the animal affections which attended the work
of grace, had prevailed so far. This was that which
my mind dwelt upon, almost day and night, and this
to me was the darkest appearance respecting religion
in the land, for it was this chiefly that had prejudiced
the world against inward religion. And I saw the
great misery of all was, that so few saw any manner
of difference between those exercises that are spiritual
and holy, and these which have self-love only for
their beginning, centre and end."
Thus lying on a bed of sickness, but supported by
the grace of God, he longed for the time when he
should again revisit his Indians. This honour was
not to be, his race was nearly run, and his work
" I long to see this excellence
Which at such distance strikes my sense
My impatient soul struggles to disengage
Her wings from the confinement of her cage,
Wouldst Thou great Love this prisoner once set free
How would she hasten to be linked with Thee !
She d for no angel conduct stay
But fly and love on all the way."
SWEEPING THROUGH THE GATES.
" Lord, Thou hast joined my soul to Thine
In bonds no power can sever ;
Grafted in Thee, the living Vine,
I shall be Thine for ever.
Lord, when I die, I die to Thee,
Thy precious death hath won for me
A life that never endeth." Hermann.
ALTHOUGH Brainerd was never to go amongst
his Indians again, the severity of his illness
relaxed for a few weeks, and he was able to
receive his friends, and even make short visits
out of doors. This brief stay in Beulah land within
sight of the golden city, was a special happiness, both
to the invalid and his friends. It was a constant
source of thankfulness to him, and afterwards much
commented upon by those he left behind, that a Pro
vidence seems to have most wisely ordered the
arrangements of these final days. He had been
spared to see in the wonderful revival of religion
among the Indians the salvation of God ere he was
134 DAVID BRAINERD.
laid aside, Unlike his brave predecessor, John
Eliot, he had the joy of seeing a Christian church
established among the Indians, with the reverent
institutions and preachers of the ordinances ; to know
that the old vagrant life of these people had been
abandoned, their idolatries given up, the habits of
murderous war exchanged for the peaceful pursuits
of husbandry. When he left their settlement at the
Forks of Delaware, the children were in school, and
giving promise of a useful future. Not only this was
a matter of real encouragement, but the publication
of the former part of his journal had awakened a new
impulse of interest for missions among the Indians, and
in distant parts of America people were coming for
ward, not only with money, but offering themselves
for a work which God had so highly forwarded in the
hands of Brainerd. He did not, in fact, leave the
field until his own brother, who had been greatly
stimulated with the same devotion to the cause, had
just finished his college course, and was ready to
enter upon the work as his coadjutor and successor.
He had been taken ill while staying with his friend,
Mr. Dickinson, at Elizabethtown, and for a time his
life was then despaired of ; but from this he recovered
sufficiently to reach Boston at a time when it seemed
providentially most suitable. The " Honourable Com
missioners " of the Society, under whose direction he
worked, had just reached Boston for the purpose ot
examining into the work, and appropriating at once,
under the recent legacy of Dr. Williams, a sum of
money for the support of two new missionaries to the
Indians of the Six Nations. These candidates
Brainerd was able to see himself, and instruct them
in the best means of advancing the work which lay
before them. Not the least of the works of Provi
dence at this time was in the fact that he went to die
under the roof of his friend and biographer, Jonathan
Edwards, who happily dissuaded him from suppressing
or destroying the whole of his journal and papers.
SWEEPING THROUGH THE GATES. 135
Had these never seen the light, one of the most inter
esting and stimulating works in missionary literature
would have been lost to the world. Instead of doing
that, however, he carefully prepared his diary and
journal for the press, and had only just finished this
important duty when death snatched the pen.
Brainerd was an excellent if not a considerable
letter writer, and some few of his epistles are still
preserved. Here and there we have a few lines
written to his brother at Yale College (who succeeded
him), describing his own labours, and disclosing many
of the privations and adventures which it was his lot
to endure. In one sentence of a letter, written from
Crossweeksung in December, 1745, ne shows how the
burden of the Lord was upon him, and with a restless
anxiety, he was ever pushing on.
" I am in one continual, perpetual, and uninter
rupted hurry, and Divine providence throws so much
upon me that I do not see that it will ever be other
wise. May I obtain mercy of God to be faithful
unto the death ! I cannot say I am weary of my
hurry ; I only want strength and grace to do more for
God than I have ever yet done."
To another brother he finds time to write while
still ill at Boston, when, indeed, he thought his end
was very nigh. At the time of writing this letter he
was by no means satisfied as to the spiritual condition
of this brother, Israel, and, therefore, he implores him
with dying intensity to give himself to God, and
follow in his steps to do His glory, and further His
kingdom. What weight and directness are in these
closing words :
" You, my dear brother, I have been particularly
concerned for, and have wondered I so much neglected
conversing with you about your spiritual state at our
last meeting. O, my brother, let me then beseech
you now to examine whether you are indeed a new
creature ? Whether you have ever acted above self?
Whether the glory of God has ever been the sweetest
136 DAVID BRAINERD.
and highest concern with you ? Whether you have
ever been reconciled to all the perfections of God?
In a word whether God has been your portion and a
holy conformity to Him your chief delight ? If you
cannot answer positively, consider seriously the fre
quent breathings of your soul, but do not, however,
put yourself off with a slight answer. If you have
reason to think you are graceless, O, give yourself
and the Throne of Grace no rest till God arise and
save. But if the case should be otherwise, bless God
for His grace, and press after holiness.
" My soul longs that you should be fitted for, and
in due time go into the work of the ministry. I can
not bear to think of you going into any other business
in life. Do not be discouraged because you see your
elder brothers in the ministry die early one after the
other. I declare, now I am dying, I would not have
spent my life otherwise for the whole world."
The young brother to whom the foregoing was
written was able to reach his bedside sometime before
he died, and gave, to the inexpressible joy of the
departing saint, real evidence of being a Christian.
His brother John, who became his successor in the
work, was much upon his mind at this closing season
of his life, and to him far away among the Christian
Indians, fighting the good fight of faith as his brother
had done, one very precious letter was sent. He
speaks of himself as "just on the verge of eternity,
expecting very speedily to appear in the unseen
world." With many warm and earnest words he
glorifies God for His mercy and the grace which has
sustained him amid many trials. And he wants, as a
departing legacy, to warn, exhort, and instruct his
brother in the Divine life. His words are solemn,
and he speaks as one whose hand is already upon the
latch of that door from whence there is no return till
the trumpet of God shall sound.
" And now, my dear brother, as I must press you to
pursue after personal holiness, to be as much in fast-
SWEEPING THROUGH THE GATES.
ing and prayer as your health will allow, and to live
above the rate of common Christians ; so I must
entreat you solemnly to attend to your public work ;
labour to distinguish between true and false religion,
and to that end watch the motions of God s Spirit
upon your own heart. Look to Him for help, and
impartially compare your affections with His Word.
Read Mr. Edwards
on the Affections!
where the essence
and soul of religion
is clearly distin
guished from false
religious joys accor
ding to the subject-
matter of them ;
there are many
who rejoice in their
tion but what do
these joys argue
but only that they love themselves ? Whereas in
true spiritual joys the soul rejoices in God for what
He is in Himself; blesses God for His holiness,
sovereignty, power, faithfulness, and all His perfec
tions ; adores God that He is what He is ; that He
is unchangeably possessed of infinite glory and happi
ness. Now, when men thus rejoice in the perfections
138 DAVID BRAINERE
of God, and in the infinite excellency of the way of
salvation by Christ, and in the holy commands of God,
which are a transcript of His holy nature, these joys
are Divine and spiritual. Our joys will stand by us at
the hour of death, if we can be then satisfied that we
have thus acted above self, and in a disinterested
manner, if I may so express it, rejoiced in the glory
of the blessed God. I fear you are not sufficiently
aware how much false religion there is in the world ;
many serious Christians and valuable ministers are too
easily imposed upon by this false blaze. I likewise
fear you are not sensible of the dreadful effects and
consequences of this false religion. Let me tell you it
is the devil transformed into an angel of light ; it is a
brat of hell, and always springs up with every revival
of religion, and stabs and murders the cause of God,
while it passes current with multitudes of well-mean
ing people for the height of religion. Set yourself,
my brother, to crush all appearances of this nature
among the Indians, and never encourage any degrees
of heat without light. Charge my people in the name
of their dying minister yea, in the name of Him who
was dead and is alive, to live and walk as becomes the
Gospel. Tell them how great the expectations of
God and His people are from them, and how awfully
they will wound God s cause if they fall into vice, as
well as fatally prejudice other poor Indians. Always
insist that their experiences are rotten, that their joys
are delusive, although they may have been rapt up
into the third heaven in their own conceit by them,
unless the main tenour of their lives be spiritual,
watchful, and holy. In pressing these things thou
shalt save thyself and those that hear thee.
" God knows I was heartily willing to have served
Him longer in the work of the ministry, although it
had still been attended with the labours and hardships
of past years, if He had seen fit that it should be so ;
but as His will now appears otherwise, I am fully
content, and can, with utmost freedom, say, The
SWEEPING THROUGH THE GATES. 139
will of the Lord be done. It affects me to think of
leaving you in a world of sin, my heart pities you,
that these storms and tempests are yet before you,
which I trust, through grace, I am delivered from.
But * God lives, and blessed be my Rock. He is the
same Almighty Friend ; and will, I trust, be your
Guide and Helper, as He has been mine."
Besides writing these letters, he was able, during
these hours of weakness, to converse with many who
were attracted to his bedside either by a desire to hear
of the wonderful work accomplished by him among
the Indians, or by an anxiety about their own spirit
ual state. His heart was with his Indians, and their
faces and feathered hair were constantly before his
mind. From distant parts of the country, people
came to where he lay at Boston, many ministers of
every denomination, and laymen of influence and
position. To these, one theme was the paramount
subject of his conversation that of vital and sound
religion, and the blessed experience of delighting in
God. His soul, rapidly ripening for the garner of
the Lord, was set upon heavenly things, and now that,
for a brief space, he could no longer labour, he felt
that he must wait patiently, and testify to all of the
goodness of God. Brainerd seems to have had an
increasing dread of people having a mere form of
godliness, holding with firm allegiance to doctrines
which, true in themselves, have no effect whatever
upon their outward life, or the principles which move
their actions and words. He was also jealous for
Scripture teaching, as distinguished from the fantastic
ideas which characterised the theology of that far-
off time, as they do our own.
" I always conversed of the things of religion," he
says, in later notes referring to the present time, " and
was peculiarly disposed and assisted in distinguishing
between the true and false religions of the times.
There was scarce any subject, that has been matter of
debate in the later day, but what I was, at one time
I4O DAVID BRAINERD.
or other, brought to a sort of necessity to discourse
upon, and state my opinions, and that frequently
before numbers of people ; and especially I discoursed
repeatedly on the nature and necessity of that
humiliation, self -emptiness, and full conviction of a
person s being utterly undone in himself, which is
necessary to a saving faith, and the extreme difficulty
of being brought to this, and the great danger there
is of persons taking up with self-righteous appearances
of it. The danger of this I especially dwelt upon,
being persuaded that multitudes perish in this hidden
way ; and because so little is said from most pulpits
to discover any danger here, so that persons being
never effectually brought to die in themselves, are
never truly united to Christ, and so perish. I also
discoursed much on what I take to be the essence of
true religion, endeavouring plainly to describe that
God-like temper and disposition of soul, and that holy
conversation and behaviour, that may justly claim the
honour of having God for its original and patron.
And I have reason to hope God blessed my way of
discoursing and distinguishing to some, both ministers
and people, so that my time was not wholly lost"
One result of these visits was that some generous
souls, being deeply interested in the accounts he gave
them of his work at the Forks of Delaware, sent three
dozen Bibles for his school (no mean or inexpensive
gift in those days), and fourteen pounds in money, to
be expended for the good of the cause there.
After being so near death s door, there came a
marvellous rally, and Brainerd, to the astonishment of
his friends, began to show some amendment in
strength. How bad he had been may be seen by an
account given by the faithful Jerusha, who was his
constant nurse until the very last. She speaks of his
delirious fever, and how one Saturday evening they
all sat up with him during the night, fearing any
moment might prove his last. His lungs were so
diseased that the physician said he had no hopes of
SWEEPING THROUGH THE GATES. 141
his life, and that in one of his hours of extreme
debility he must pass away. This he thought him
self, and told one of his friends that he was as
certainly a dead man as if he had been shot through
the heart. But he was not yet to go. Just as he
began to revive, his young brother Israel hastened
with alarm to his bedside, and this gave him much
pleasure, although it was dashed with the intelligence
of his sister s sudden death at Haddam, his native
place. As soon as he was sufficiently recovered, we
find him leaving Boston one cool afternoon, accom
panied by many friends, and after a week s travel,
doing sixteen miles horseback each day, he reached
Northampton. The effort cost him much, and from
that moment he began to diminish in strength every
day. But his heart was strong and his faith unfailing.
He makes this note in his diary under date Lord s
Day, the 26th of July, 1747, " This day I saw clearly
that I should never be happy ; yea, that God Himself
could not make me happy, unless I could be in a
capacity to please and glorify Him for ever. Take
away this, and admit me into all the fine heavens that
can be conceived of by men or angels, and I should
still be miserable for ever."
Here, as at Boston, many visited him, and to some
he gave most interesting details of his own spiritual
experiences, but so averse was he to any show or
fussy talk about religion that he bade those to whom
he had confided these matters make no mention of
them until after his death.
On the i6th of August, 1747, he was able to attend
public worship for the last time, and a week later
when he could not leave his room, he made a reference
in his diary as follows : " This morning I was con
siderably refreshed with the thought, yea, the hope
and expectation of the enlargement of Christ s king
dom ; and I could not but hope the time was at hand
when Babylon the Great would fall and rise no
more. This led me to some spiritual meditation that
142 DAVID BRAINERD.
was very refreshing to me. I was unable to attend
public worship either part of the day, but God was
pleased to afford me fixedness and satisfaction in
Divine thoughts. Nothing so refreshes my soul as
when I can go to God, yea, to God my exceeding
Once more confined to his room, and this for the
last time, he again busied himself with his Indian
affairs ; wrote at large to the Commissioners at Boston
respecting the projected development of the work,
and recommended two young men to be sent into
the field without delay. Just then, to his great joy,
his brother John, who had taken up his work in New
Jersey, came unexpectedly to see him, bringing him
loving messages from his people and good news of
their progress. One of the most noteworthy incidents
of this visit was that his brother brought with him
many manuscripts which had been left behind,
amongst others, this precious diary which has since
been such a faithful memorial of him.
A little over-exertion a few days later laid him
prostrate, and those who watched him thought they
discerned signs of approaching death. Observing
their anxiety he called out, " O the glorious time is
coming ! I have longed to serve God perfectly, now
God will gratify these desires ! "
He was not to die then, but it is on record that his
spirits rose with every intimation of the coming
release, and only fell when it seemed as if he must
linger longer still outside the gates. His talk, as he
looked upon the faces of his friends, was full of
intense love and devotion to God, yearning with an
inexpressible ardour to be useful, to promote by
every means His glory. We have few memorials of
the triumphant end of any saint of God so rich in the
glorious foretaste of the " abundant entrance " to the
city of light. His mind was perfectly clear, and his
eyes glistened with Divine rapture, as he told his
SWEEPING THROUGH THE GATES. 143
" My heaven is to please God and glorify Him, and
to give all to Him, and to be wholly devoted to His
day; that is the heaven I long for; that is my religion,
and that is my happiness, and always was ever since,
I suppose, I had any true religion ; and all those
that are of that religion shall meet me in heaven.
I do not go to heaven to be advanced but to give
honour to God. It is no matter where I shall be
stationed in heaven, whether I have a high or a low
seat there, but to love, and please, and glorify God is
all. Had I a thousand souls, if they were worth
anything, I would give them all to God, but I have
nothing to give when all is done. It is impossible for
any rational creature to be happy without acting all
for God. God Himself could not make him happy
any other way. I long to be in heaven praising and
glorifying God with the holy angels, all my desire is
to glorify God. My heart goes out to this burying-
place, it seems to me a desirable place, but oh ! to
glorify God ! that is it, that is above all. It is a great
comfort for me to think that I have done a little for
God and the world. Oh ! it is but a very small
matter, yet I have done a little^ and I lament it that
I have not done more for Him. There is nothing in
the world worth living for but doing good and finish
ing God s work, doing the work that Christ did.
I see nothing else in the world that can yield any
satisfaction besides living to God, pleasing Him, and
doing His whole will. My greatest joy and comfort
has been to do something for promoting the interests
of religion, and the souls of particular persons, and
now, in my illness, while I am full of pain and distress,
from day to day, all the comfort I have is in being
able to do some little char (or small piece of work) for
God, either by something that I say, or by writing, or
by some other way."
When he refers to his physical condition as full of
pain and distress, it is no exaggeration, for we have
glimpses in his private diary of what sufferings he
144 DAVID BRAINERD.
patiently bore. The words just quoted were not those
of one quietly and painlessly passing away, but were
uttered often when the fever consumed his vitals, and
every nerve seemed a vehicle of pain. If the spirit
chafed at all, it chafed like the imprisoned bird of
liberty. " Oh my dear Lord, I am speedily coming
to Thee, I hope," was his ejaculation when the agony
He had little strength to write now, but a few
scrawled entries appear in his diary, such as : " Lords
Day, September 2jth. This was a very comfortable
day to my soul ; I think / awoke with God. I was
enabled to lift up my soul to God early this morning,
and while I had little bodily strength, I found freedom
to lift up my heart to God for myself and others.
Afterwards was pleased with the thoughts of speedily
entering into the unseen world." On that particular
morning it was observed how much exhilarated he
was, and, greeting his friends as they came into his
room with exceeding pleasure, he said :
" I was born on a Sabbath Day ; I have reason to
think I was new born on a Sabbath Day ; and I hope
I shall die on this Sabbath Day. I shall look upon
it as a favour if it may be the will of God that it
should be so ; I long for the time. O why is His
chariot so long in coming ? Why tarry the wheels of
His chariot?" The end was now not far off. His
desire that the liberating angel should come and set
him free on that day was not granted. For more than
a week he lay waiting, blaming himself ofttimes for
his impatience; and at one time he lay so long speech
less that those who loved him bent their ear to his lips,
thinking he was really gone, but could still catch the
whispered prayer, " Come, Lord Jesus, come quickly."
Reviving again, he asked them to sing the iO2nd Psalm,
and with full hearts those sacred words of David s cry
in his affliction were uttered again in the ears of the
God of Sabaoth, " Hear my prayer, O Lord, and let
my cry come unto Thee, Hide not Thy face from me
SWEEPING THROUGH THE GATES. 145
in the day when I am in trouble; incline Thine ear unto
me : in the day when I call answer me speedily."
Listening to these words, he seemed to gain fresh
strength, and began to speak again of his departure,
and express the desire that his funeral should be of
the quietest and simplest sort. He thanked God that
he was not now in Boston, where he had seen
mourning performed with much pomp and outward
show. He was always most averse to anything
which could be construed as self-gratificationj whether
of the living or the dead, and treasured the old Puri
tanical simplicity of taste and order.
His brother John had found it necessary to return
for a few days to New Jersey, and the dying
missionary looked in vain for his coming back, as
promised, before he passed away. The daughter of
his friend, Mr. Edwards, who had been his faithful and
patient nurse all through his illness, and to whom he
had been for some time much attached, came into his
room, and he said farewell to her.
Her father says of her that it pleased " God to take
away this my dear child by death on the 1 4th of Feb
ruary next following, after a short illness of five days,
in the i8th year of her age. She was a person of
much the same spirit with Mr. Brainerd. She had
constantly taken care of and attended him in his sick
ness for nineteen weeks before his death, devoting
herself to it with great delight because she looked on
him as an eminent servant of Jesus Christ. In this
time he had much conversation with her on the things
of religion ; and in his dying state often expressed to
us, her parents, his great satisfaction concerning her
true piety, and his confidence that he should meet her
in heaven, and his high opinion of her, not only as a
true Christian but as a very eminent saint ; one whose
soul was uncommonly fed and entertained with things
that appertain to the most spiritual, experimental, and
distinguishing parts of religion ; and one who by the
temper of her mind was fitted to deny herself for God,
146 DAVID BRAINERD.
and to do good beyond any young woman whatsoever
that he knew of. She had manifested a heart uncom
monly devoted to God in the course of her life, many
years before her death, and said on her deathbed that
* she had not seen one minute for several years where
in she desired to live one minute longer for the sake
of any other good in life but doing good, living to
God, and doing what might be for His glory."
To her, in his fast-ebbing moments, Brainerd
turned with love and said : " Dear Jerusha, are you
willing to part with me ? I am quite willing to part
with you ; I am willing to part with all my friends ;
I am willing to part with my dear brother John,
although I love him the best of any creature living ;
I have committed him and all my friends to God, and
can leave them with God. Though, if I thought
I should not see you, and be happy with you in
another world, I could not bear to part with you.
But we shall spend a happy eternity together ! "
Brainerd fell into a stupor, and did not revive again
until his brother came in, and soon after the silver
cord was loosed, the pitcher broken at the fountain, and
murmuring, " He will come, He will not tarry, I shall
soon be in glory, I shall soon glorify God with the
angels," he fell asleep in Jesus, on Friday, the 9th of
October, 1747. David Brainerd, with the language of
the faithful and beloved, had reached at last the
celestial city, which the glorious dreamer saw:
" Now I saw in my dream that these two men went
in at the gate ; and, lo, as they entered, they were
transfigured, and they had raiment put on them which
shone like gold. There were also that met them
with harps and crowns, and gave them to them the
harps to praise, and the crowns a token of honour.
Then I heard in my dream that all the bells in the
city rang again for joy, and it was said unto them,
Enter ye into the joy of your Lord/ I also heard
the men themselves, that they sang with a loud voice,
saying, Blessing and honour and glory and power **e
SWEEPING THROUGH THE GATES. 149
onto Him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the
Lamb for ever and ever.
" Now, just as the gates were opened to let in the
men, I looked in after them, and, behold, the city
shone like the sun, the streets also were paved with
gold, and in them walked many men with crowns on
their heads, palms in their hands, and golden harps to
sing praises withal.
" There were also of them that had wings, and they
answered one another without intermission, Holy,
holy, holy is the Lord-.
" And after that they shut up the gates, which, when
I had seen, I wished myself among them."
" O sweet and blessed country,
Shall I ever see thy face ?
sweet and blessed country,
Shall I ever win thy grace ?
1 have the hope within me
To comfort and to bless !
Shall I ever win the prize itself ?
O tell me, tell me, Yes !
" Strive, man, to win that glory ;
Toil man, to gain that light ;
Send hope before to grasp it,
Till hope be lost in sight.
Exult, O dust and ashes,
The Lord shall be thy part ;
His only, His for ever,
Thou shalt be, and thou art."
Bernard of Cluny.
THE WORK DONE AND BEING DONE.
" Shall we whose souls are lighted
With wisdom from on high
Shall we to men benighted
The lamp of life deny ?
Salvation, O Salvation !
The joyful sound proclaim,
Till each remotest nation
Has learned Messiah s name." Heber.
WHO besides Brainerd have laboured for the
Indians good ? What in the past has been
the history of mission work to these tribes of
Red men, and how far and with what meas
ure of success is this noble toil pursued in our own
day ? Such questions as these naturally may arise in
the minds of those, who, from reading the preceding
record of a good and faithful servant, may be inspired
with a deeper interest in the race for whom he gave
away his life. The history of Indian Missions is
itself worthy of a volume, alive as it is with exciting
episode, and rich in a martyrology which is not sur-
THE WORK DONE AND BEING DONE. 15!
passed by any similar work for Christ anywhere in
the world. But it may not be out of place in antici
pation of the questions just put to briefly narrate
something of what has been done, and in these later
days is being achieved for the salvation of these
To go back very far, even to the fifteenth century,
we find the Jesuits first in the field. They followed
closely in the wake of the haughty Spaniard, who, by
the galleons of his then unsurpassed navy, made for
himself a footing on the shores of the West. It
would be unjust to refuse a recognition of the heroic
devotion and self-sacrifice of these missionary priests.
The Gospel which they carried may have been a
sadly corrupted message of God s mercy, but its pro
pagation inspired these men with a zeal and self-
renunciation which is worthy of all praise. When
the great Catholic Queen, Isabella, gave special com
mands that " great care should be taken of the religious
instruction of the Indians," many there were who in
the name of the Church leapt forward to do her
England, the great religious as well as political
antagonist of Spain, was equally alive to the spiritual
needs of the Indians, and in the gallant ships which
hunted for the Spanish fleet in distant waters were
brave, good soldiers of the Cross, whose mission was
to fight not carnal but spiritual foes. Thus we find on
the deck with the Sir Richard Grenville, of that famous
little craft The Revenge, one Thomas Hariot, of goodly
memory, who stepping ashore among the Indians
preached faithfully the Word of God. " Many times,"
says he in his notes, which have come down to
us, " and in every towne where I came, according as
I was able, I made declaration of the contents of the
Bible ; that therein was set forth the true onely God
and His mightie works, that therein was contained the
true doctrine of salvation through Christ, with many
particularities of miracles and chiefe points of religion
152 DAVID BRAINERD.
as I was able then to utter and thought fit for the
Doubtless in those far off days as in these present
with us, the Protestant missionary found a double foe
to fight in the united errors of Pagan and Romish
superstition. With the Pilgrim Fathers came the
first definite endeavour to speak amongst the Indian
aborigines the saving truths of the Christian religion.
When they landed and began to found their Plymouth
colony, it was immediately declared that their aim
was " a desire to advance the Gospel in these remote
parts of the world, even if they should be but as
stepping stones to those who were to follow them."
In Massachusetts they adopted as a state emblem
the figure of an Indian with a label from his mouth
saying, " Come over and help us." Thus it has been
truly said, "These Pilgrims and Puritans were the
pioneers of the Protestant world in attempts to con
vert the heathen to Christ. There were missionary
colleges self-supporting missions composed of men
who went on their own responsibility and at their
own expense to establish their posterity among the
heathen whose salvation they sought." In the first
chapter of this book a sketch is given of John Eliot, a
famous and successful missionary of that day, one
whose name and work is deserving of a more com
plete and worthier memorial in these present times of
missionary interest. His Indian Bible published at
Cambridge, near Boston, was the first and for many
years the only edition of the Holy Scriptures in the
vernacular. The work of Eliot and Mayhew and
their praying Indians on the Island of Martha s
Vineyard is a most interesting page in the history of
these early missions in New England.
The opening of the eighteenth century brings
David Brainerd into view, taking up the noble labours
of his Puritan predecessors. What manner of man
he was, and what through the grace of God he was
enabled to do, is set forth in this book ; it need only
THE WORK DONE AND BEING DONE. 153
be affirmed that evidently upon him descended the
prophet s mantle, and a double portion of the spirit
of devotion and power.
We now come to the time when General Oglethorpe
laid the foundations of the colony of Georgia, and
took with him a pioneer band of Moravian mission
aries, who were destined to make history and inscribe
their names indelibly in the record of distinguished
service for Christ. One of this number was David
Zeisberger, a man of apostolic character, who seemed
to have had a charmed life, so wonderfully was he
preserved amid a perilous career. In common with all
the Brethren he was a man of peace, refusing to bear
arms, and having the rare courage to accept the
doctrines of the Sermon on the Mount as his rule of
conduct, for which godly offence he became the butt
of the white man s jealousy and spite, who, indeed,
seems to have done his utmost to undermine the
confidence of the Indians in their meek and devoted
friend. He mastered the languages of the Six
Nations, and when by persecution his Christian
Indians were driven forth from Shekomeko, he founded
the settlement of Gnadenhlitten or the " Tents of
Grace." Everywhere the influence of his teaching was
felt, and the Christian natives began to flock around
him, and fresh settlements were formed, notably
Friendenstadt, or the " Town of Peace," among the
Iroquois ; and Schonbrunn, or " The Beautiful
Spring," near Lake Erie. Soon afterwards the
American War of Independence began, and the
Moravian Brethren, staunchly refusing to take part
with either side, were caught in the fiery storm, and
suffered by the inroads and attacks of both whites
and Indians. Drink had made the red men lawless
and thirsty for outrage, and the Christian settlements
were being constantly invaded, and the lives of the
missionaries openly threatened. In vain did the
friends of Zeisberger urge him to fly. He determined,
even if it cost him his life, to remain loyally with his
154 DAVID BRAINERD.
converts. " My heart does not allow me," says he in
reply, " even so much as to think of leaving. Where
the Christians stay I will stay. It is impossible for
me to forsake them. If Edwards and I were to go
they would be without a guide and would disperse.
Our presence gives authority to the national assistants,
and the Lord gives authority to us. He will not look
upon our remaining here as foolhardiness. I make
no pretensions to heroism ; but am by nature as
timid as a dove. My trust is altogether in God,
Never has He put me to shame, but always granted
me the courage and the comfort I needed. I am
about my duty, and even^if I should be murdered it
will not be my loss but my gain." He lived long
beyond the allotted three-score years and ten, and,
like Eliot, saw in his last days the cruel obliteration
of that work among the Indians, which he had given
the energy of his lifetime to accomplish.
Besides Ziesberger many others might be quoted, as
for instance, Christian Rauch, who inspired the Indians
with confidence and respect. One of them once seeing
him peacefully sleeping in a hut amongst them,
remarked, " This man cannot be a bad man. He
fears no evil. He does not fear us who are so fierce,
but he sleeps in peace, and puts his life in our hands."
Among the Moravian missionaries who came out
with General Oglethorpe was a young English
clergyman, who with considerable high-church notions
began to preach the Gospel to the Indians in Georgia.
This was John Wesley, whose mission to Georgia
was the means of bringing him in contact with the
Brethren, and resulted in his own conversion and that
glorious revival of religion in his own country, the
fruits of which are being gathered in every part of
the world to-day.
The commencement of American missions to the
Indians dates from a little gathering of students of
Williams College, under a haystack in the rain, to
pray for the heathen and devote themselves to the
THE WORK DONE AND BEING DONE. 155
work of their salvation. The outcome of this first
missionary meeting was the establishment of the
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign
Missions. The New York Missionary Society had
already, in 1801, sent Mr. Holmes to work among
the Tuscaroras at the Falls of Niagara, to whom
came the pitiful appeal from some chiefs : " We cry
to you from the wilderness, our hearts ache while we
speak to your ears. . . . Think, poor Indians must
die as well as white men. We pray you, therefore,
never to give over and leave poor Indians, but follow
them in their dark times, and let our children always
find you to be their friends when we are dead and no
In 1818 the American Board sent missionaries to
the Cherokees and Choctaws ; schools were founded,
and there seemed every prospect of permanent suc
cess, when the Indians were driven back beyond the
Mississippi, and in despair many became slaves to
drink, and fell away. In 1836 three missionaries,
Mr. Spalding, Mr. Gray, and Dr. Whitman, traversed
three thousand miles to reach the Kayuses and Nez
Perec s Indians, and found them remarkably ready to
receive the truth. During ten years great progress
was made ; schools, printing presses, and a Christian
church were founded ; but suddenly the unchristian
natives burst upon the little mission house, treacher
ously murdered the doctor, his wife, and his friends,
and the whole community were brutally treated and
dispersed. After this Mr. Stephen R. Riggs, and his
wife, began work among the Dacotas and Sioux, and
after much patient endurance, God gave these faithful
witnesses great success, and, like Brainerd, they saw
a remarkable revival of religion among the Indians.
" A Dacota now began to think as an Englishman,
Christ came into the language, the Holy Spirit began
to pour sweetness and power into it." But upon this
glad time there waited a season of persecution and
distress ; and murderous outrage destroyed the workers,
I $6 DAVID BRAINERD.
and dispersed the converts. Here seems to have
followed a time when, on every hand, a policy of
retreat and discomfiture seized the mission societies.
The mission to the Chickasees was abandoned in
1834 ; that to the Osages in 1836 ; to the Stockbridge
tribe in 1848 ; to the Choctaws in 1859 ; to the Tus-
caroras and Cherokees in 1860 twelve missions, and
forty-five churches, which reached about one hundred
thousand Indians, abandoned in twenty-six years !
Dr. Beard, of America, who vouches for these facts,
says, " The question now asks itself, Why were not
these hopeful missionary efforts to these pagan tribes
more permanent ? What turned the tide of success,
and left the missions stranded ? Here comes the story
of dishonour. . . . Unscrupulous greed has hovered
about the Indian reservations as waiting buzzards
hover near the wounded creature upon whose flesh
they would fatten. Lands granted to the Indians
were encroached upon by the white people. These
encroachments resisted led to war. Savage nature,
wrought up with a sense of injustice, and burning for
revenge, swept down upon the guilty intruder and
settler alike with indiscriminate massacre."
One of the most conspicuous instances of the mis
sion work among the Indians being injured by the
unchristian aggression of the white man was that of
the treatment of the peaceful and enlightened Chero
kee tribe, who had so far embraced civilised ideas as
to found the town of Brainerd in Georgia. The
efforts of the missionaries there had been crowned
with much success ; but the State authorities were
jealous of their influence with the natives, and at
one time imprisoned two of them until the pressure
of the Supreme Court, to which the missionaries
appealed, enforced their release. The Indians were
oppressed, deprived of their native government, and
treated with the greatest injustice. Finally, a treaty
was agreed upon, and for a consideration, wholly
insufficient, the Cherokees were to be exported
THE WORK DONE AND BEING DONE. 157
wholesale beyond the Mississippi. The way in
which this was enforced, and its miserable results,
is thus well described by one of the best and most
impartial works of missionary history. " This treaty
was bitterly opposed by the majority of the nation.
They said, We feel it due to ourselves frankly to
state that the Cherokee people do not and will not
recognise the obligation of the instrument of Decem
ber, 1835. We reject all its terms ; we will receive
none of its benefits. If it is to be enforced upon us,
it will be by your superior strength. We shall offer
no resistance, but our voluntary assent will never be
yielded. We are aware of the consequences ; but,
while suffering them in all their bitterness, we shall
submit our cause to an all-wise and just God, in
whose Providence it is to maintain the cause of
suffering innocence and unprotected feebleness.
" On the strength of the treaty, however, prepara
tions were made for their removal, and forts were
built to guard against any opposition that might
arise. The 23rd of May, 1838, was fixed upon as the
day when the troops were to commence operations.
When the day arrived few had made any prepara
tions, and families were turned out wholesale from
their houses and farms, and collected into bodies
ready for their long march to the Arkansas country.
" For a period of ten months the work of emigration
went on, and during this period 10,000 people, divided
into fourteen companies, travelled a distance of six
or seven hundred miles, old and young, male and
female, sick and healthy, none were spared, all were
compelled to seek a new home away in the west.
Before starting some of the companies were detained
for a considerable time in their encampments, during
which they remained idle, and were exposed to every
kind of evil and temptation which proximity to the
whites afforded. Often without sufficient tent
accommodation they were greatly exposed to the
inclemency of the severe winter of 1838-39, and many
158 DAVID BRAINERD.
besides were very inadequately clothed. The result
was a terrible mortality among them, not less than
one-fourth of the whole dying on the journey, this
being on an average twelve deaths a-day.
" The work of the mission was greatly deranged by
the embarrassed state of the political affairs of the
Indians ; and when the missionaries were arrested
and imprisoned, some of the stations became neglected
and abandoned. Under the system of lottery by
which the land was distributed, the premises of two
of the mission stations were taken possession of by
the men who had drawn the lots containing them,
and the Board suffered considerable loss therefrom.
The Cherokees, too, now imbibed a deep prejudice
against the Christian religion. They found them
selves robbed and despoiled of their most sacred and
undisputed rights by a nation professing to be
Christian ! They saw that those who taught them
were themselves American citizens, and as such were
partly responsible for those injuries done to them.
The result was that a spirit of laxity grew up among
the church members, and caused many to fall back
into heathenism and superstition. Their own
political condition occupied attention to such an
engrossing extent that little heed was paid to religion,
and the morals of the people suffered accordingly." *
One of the most celebrated missionaries to the
Indians in the present century was Peter Cartwright,
the Methodist backwoods preacher. His own con
version from a life of gaiety and gambling, and his
subsequent call to go forth to preach to the Indians
is full of interest. He married an excellent woman,
who became his brave and faithful helpmeet, and
with their little children they travelled hundreds of
miles through roadless swamps and forests and
swiftly flowing rivers. The influence of his preaching
was almost as striking as that of Brainerd, at one
* Cassell s " Conquests of the Cross,"
THE WORK DONE AND BEING DONE. 159
revival service we are told three hundred people lay
upon the ground under conviction of sin. He stoutly
opposed slavery, and, after enduring the discredit of
emancipation principles, lived to see, at fourscore, the
black man free. Others nobly followed up the work.
Space fails to recount the remarkable missionary
experiences of those who, during the past half-century,
have given themselves freely for the salvation of the
Indians. Each name, of which a bare mention can
alone be given here, deserves a record in the annals
of holy enterprise. How nobly Riggs and his devoted
wife laboured among the Dacotas, how he compiled an
invaluable dictionary of 16,000 native words, and how,
with a party of sixty Christian men and women, they
retreated a hundred miles across the prairie from the
fury of the Indians maddened rage. How Finley
formed a Church among the Wyandotts, and had a
grand helper in a converted chief, by name " Sum-
mun-de-wet," how Breck spent nearly forty years
amongst the Chippewas, how Jackson and Mrs.
MacFarland preached the Gospel in Alaska, how
Wilson and his wife founded the native community
at Sarnia, on the Garden River, what Case and
Copway did in the midst of the Ojibways, the faith
ful service of Macdonald and Kirby in the Youcan
district, and of Duncan at Fort Simpson. Besides
these, mention must be made of three native Indian
missionaries, Peter Jones, John Sunday, and Henry
Sternheur, who were called upon to " hold the fort "
for Christ among their brethren, and were much
blessed in their work. Amongst missionaries of our
own time, perhaps the name of the Rev. Egerton R.
Young is most distinguished, one who has described
his work among the Cree and Salteaux Indians in a
volume of charming interest.
Nearly all branches of the Christian Church have
been and are represented in this work of spreading
the good news of salvation among the denizens of the
wigwams. The New England Company, which,
160 DAVID BRAINERD.
founded so far back as 1649, may be deemed the
parent Society, does still a great work among the
Mohawks on the Grand River, and has there and
elsewhere educational establishments for the young
Indians. The Church Missionary Society established
a mission station in 1822, and are now doing excellent
work in the district of Saskatchewan, among the Plain
Crees, Sioux, and Blackfeet. The missions of the
Unitas Fratrum or Moravians with its honourable
history is still doing good among the Alaska Indians
and Eskimos and Greenlanders. Societies which are
indigenous to American soil do not forget the claims
of the red man, the American Board, Baptist Union,
Methodist Episcopal, Reformed Episcopal, Presbyter
ian Board, Mennonites, Bible Society and Society of
Friends, are all more or less engaged in this work.
The dispersal of the tribes, and the recent conflict at
the Pine Ridge Agency, has, however, affected the pro
gress of these efforts. In all his troubles and vicissi
tudes, the redskin is not forgotten by many who still
believe that he has an immortal soul to be won for
One of the most intelligent and famous of North
American Indians, the chief Sitting Bull, who perished
recently in a conflict with the whites, once said,
" There is not one white man who loves an Indian,
and not a true Indian but hates a white man." The
bitterness of this declaration cannot be measured.
But it is hoped that the perusal of the preceding
pages will show that in the case of David Brainerd
and many others since his day, it is happily possible
for a white man to have a heart full of Christlike
affection for his red brother, who, on his part, is not
slow in reciprocating the fellowship of a common
LORIMER AND CHALMERS, PRINTERS, EDINBURGH.
S. W. PARTRIDGE & CO. S
. . OF , ,
POPULAR ILLUSTRATED BOOKS.
Classified according to Price.
8 & 9. PATERNOSTER ROW. LONDON, E.G.
Catalogue of Books Published
Large Crown 8vo. Cloth Boards, gilt top.
A Streng Man s Love. By David Lyall. 344 pages. Twelve
Old Readymoney s Daughter. By L. T. Meade. 332 pages.
The Letter Killeth. By A. C. Inchbold. 310 pages.
Ruth Gwynnett, Schoolmistress. By Morice Gerard. 332
pages. Twelve Illustrations.
Japan : From the Old to the New. By R. G. Webster, LL.B.
J.P. With 16 Illustrations on art paper. Demy 8vo.
BY GEO. MANVILLE FENN.
Large Crown 8vo. Fully Illustrated. Cloth Boards, gilt edges.
Dead Man s Land; or, The Adventures of Certain and Un
certain Whites and Blacks at Zimbambangwe, the Ancient Home
Trapper Dan A Story of the Backwoods.
To Win or to Die.
In the Mahdis Grasp.
In Honour s Cause : A Tale of the Days of George the First.
Steve Young ; or, The Voyage of the "Hvalross" to the Icy Seas.
BY ROBERT LEIGHTON.
Cap n Nat s Treasure : A Tale of Old Liverpool. Eight Illus
trations. Large Crown 8vo. Cloth.
BY G. A. HENTY.
Cuthbert Hartington : A Tale of Two Sieges. Large
Crown 8vo. Six Illustrations. Cloth boards, gilt edges.
BY E. F. POLLARD.
The Scarlet Judges. Illustrated. Large Crown 8vo. Cloth
boards, gilt edges.
The Two Babylons ; or, The Papal Worship proved to be the
Worship of Nimrod and his Wife. With 61 Illustrations from
Nineveh, Babylon, Egypt, Pompeii, etc. By the late Alexander
Hislop. Deoiy 8vo. Cloth extra.
By S. W. Partridge & Co.
New 5/- Library.
Demy 8vo. Of special bulk. Well Illustrated. Bound in handsome Cloth
Boards with full gilt edges. 5/- each.
Cuthbert Hartington : A Tale of Two Sieges. ByGeo. A. Henty.
The Lady of the Forest. By L. T. Meade.
True Unto Death : A Story of Russian Life. By E. F. Pollard.
The Better Part. By Annie S. Swan.
3s. 6d. each.
Handsomely bound in Cloth Boards, with gilt top.
Just Percy. A Tale of Dickton School. By H. S. Whiting.
Large Crown 8vo.
Old Wenyon s Will. By John Ackworth. Large Crown 8vo.
Twelve Illustrations. 344 pages.
More than Money. By A. St. John Adcock. Twelve Illustra
tions. Large Crown 8vo.
Those Berkeley Girls. By Lillias Campbell Davidson. Twenty-
four Illustrations. Large Crown 8vo.
The Awakening of Helena Thorpe. By E. Rentoul Esler
Large Crown 8vo. Eight Illustrations.
The Parting of the Ways. By J. L. Hornibrook. Twelve
Illustrations. Large Crown 8vo.
A Lion of Wessex; or, How Saxon fought Dane. By Tom
Bevan. Large Crown 8vo. Eight Illustrations.
A Hero King : A Romance of the Days of Alfred the Great. By
Eliza F. Pollard. Large Crown 8vo.
The Three-Cornered House. By the Author of " Everybody s
Friend." Illustrated. Large Crown 8vo.
Casque and Cowl : A Tale of the French Reformation. By
F. M. Cotton Walker. 364 pages. Four Illustrations. Large
A Lady of High Degree. By Jennie Chappell. Large Crown
A Gentleman of England. A Story of the Time of Sir Philip
Sidney. By Eliza F. Pollard. Large Crown 8vo.
Pilgrims of the Night. By Sarah Doudney. Frontispiece.
Large Crown 8vo.
The Skeleton Reef. A Sea Story. By Hugh St. Leger. Large
The Scuttling of the "Kingfisher." By Alfred E. Knight.
Frontispiece. Large Crown 8vo.
The Missing Million. A Tale of Adventure in Search of a
Million Pounds. By . Harcourt Barrage, Large Crown 8vo.
Catalogue of Books Published
3S. 6d. each (continued).
Among Hills and Valleys in Western China. By Hannah
Davies. Demy 8vo. 326 pages. Fifty Illustrations from photos,
and Large Map. Cloth boards.
The Story of the Bible. Arranged in Simple Style for Young
People. New Edition. Demy 8vo. 620 pages. Eight beautiful
pictures in colours, and more than 100 other Illustrations. Cloth
extra, 35. 6d. Gilt edges, bevelled boards, 45. 6d.
The Pilgrim s Progress. By John Bunyan. Illustrated with
55 full-page and other Engravings, drawn by Frederick Barnard,
J. D. Linton, W. Small, and engraved by Dalziel Brothers.
Crown 4to. Cloth extra, 33. 6d. Gilt edges, 53. Padded Watered
Silk, 6s. 6d.
Come, Break your Fast : Daily Meditations for a Year. By
Rev. Mark Guy Pearse. 544 pages. Large Crown 8vo. Cloth
2s. 6d. each.
Girls Imperial Library."
By Popular Authors. Large Croum 8vo. 330 pases. 6 Illustrations,
printed in photo brown. Handsomely bound in Cloth Boards.
Carol Carew , or, An Act of Imprudence. By Evelyn Everett
Green, Author of " The Three-Cornered House," etc.
Gladys s Repentance ; or, Two Girls and a Fortune. By Edith
Ursula ; or, " A Candidate for the Ministry." By Laura A. Barter-
Uncle Joshua s Heiress ; or, Which shall it be ? By Lillias
Molly : The Story of a Wayward Girl. By Harriet E. Colville,
Author of " My Grandmother s Album."
Love s Golden Thread. By Edith C. Kenyon.
Sydney Lisle; or, The Heiress of St. Quentin. By Dorothea
The Fortunes of Eight ; or, The House in Harford Place. By
Isabel Suart Robson.
The Little Missis. By Charlotte Skinner.
A Girl s Battle. By Lillias Campbell Davidson.
A Girl in a Thousand. By Edith C. Kenyon.
Agnes Dewsbury. By Laura A. Barter-Snow.
Monica s Choice. By Flora E. Berry.
By S. W. Partridge & Co.
2S. 6d. eaCh (continued}.
" Red Mountain
Crown 8vo. 320 pages. Illustrated. Handsomely Bound in Cloth Boards.
Rob Harlow s Adventures : A Story of the Grand Chaco. By
Geo. Manville Fenn.
A Boy of the First Empire. By Elbridge S. Brooks. (Superior
binding, gilt top, 35. 6d.)
Smoking Flax. By Silas K. Hocking. Twelve Illustrations.
The Boy s Life of Nelson. By J. Cuthbert Hadden. Large
Crown 8vo. 300 pages. Beautiful coloured frontispiece and eight
illustrations on art paper.
In the Misty Seas : A Story of the Sealers of Behring Strait.
By Harold Bindloss.
Two Barchester Boys : A Tale of Adventure in the Malay
States. By K. M. Eady.
True Grit : A Story of Adventure in West Africa. By Harold
Bindloss. Six Illustrations.
The Yellow Shield; or, A Captive in the Zulu Camp. By
William Johnston. Six Illustrations.
The Firebrands of the Caspian : The Story of a Bold Enter
prise. By F. M. Holmes.
A Desert Scout : A Tale of Arabi s Revolt. By Wm. Johnston.
Cormorant Crag: A Tale of the Smuggling Days. By G. Man
ville Fenn. Eight Illustrations by W. Rainey, R.I.
One of the Tenth : A Tale of the Royal Hussars. By William
Johnston. Six Illustrations.
Lost in the Slave Land ; or, The Mystery of the Sacred Lamp
Rock. By W. M. Graydon. Six Illustrations.
Ice-Bound ; or, The Anticosti Crusoes. By Edward Roper,
F.R.G.S. Six Illustrations.
On Winding Waters: A Tale of Adventure and Peril By
William Murray Graydon. Six Illustrations.
Under the Sirdar s Flag. By William Johnston. Six Illus
Catalogue of Books Published
2S. 6d. eaCh (continued).
RED MOUNTAIN" SERIES (continued).
Dorothy : The Coombehurst Nightingale. By E. M. Alford.
The Boy from Cuba : A School Story. By Walter Rhoades
The Fighting Lads of Devon : or, In the Days of the Armada.
By William Murray Graydon.
A Trip to Many Lands. By W. J. Forster. Illustrated with 26
full-page Pictures. 4to. Cloth gilt.
The Crystal Hunters : A Boy s Adventures in the Higher Alps.
By G Manville Fenn.
First in the Field : A Story of New South Wales. By G.
Manville Fenn. 416 pages.
Great Works by Great Men : The Story of Famous Engineers
and their Triumphs. By F. M. Holmes.
The Lady of the Forest By L. T. Meade.
The Red Mountain of Alaska. By Willis Boyd Allen.
The Two Henriettas. By Emma Marshall.
Popular Works by Miss Charlotte Murray.
From School to Castle. By Charlotte Murray. Illustrated.
Large Crown 8vo. Cloth boards.
Coral : A Sea Waif and her Friends. 268 pages. Six Illustra
tions. Cloth boards.
Stuart s Choice ; or, Castleton s " Prep." Crown 8vo. 288
pages. Six Illustrations. Cloth boards.
Muriel Malone ; or, From Door to Door. Illustrated. Crown
8vo. 272 pages. Cloth boards.
Through Grey to Gold. Crown 8vo. 280 pages. Six Illus
trations. Cloth boards.
Love Conquereth ; or, The Mysterious Trespasser. (See under
Home Library. 2s.)
Wardlaugh; or, Workers Together. (See under Home Library. 2s.)
By S. W. Partridge & Co. j
2s. 6d. each (a^mW).
Ferrar Fentorfs ^Translations of the Holy Scriptures
in Modern TLnglish. 2s. 6d. each net.
Vol. I. The Five Books of Moses.
Vol. II. The History of Israel.
Vol. III. The Books of the Prophets.
Vol. IV. The Psalms, Solomon, and Sacred Writers.
Vol. V. The New Testament.
The Complete Bible in Modern English. Incorporating the
above five volumes. Cloth extra, gilt top. IDS. net.
James Flanagan : The Story of a Remarkable Career. By
Dennis Crane. Crown 8vo. Fully Illustrated. Cloth boards.
2S. 6d. net.
The Earnest Life. By Silas K. Hocking. Crown 8vo. 192
pages. With portrait and autograph. Handsomely bound in
Stories of Self-Help : Recent and Living Examples of Men
Risen from the Ranks. By John Alexander. Well Illustrated.
A Young Man s Mind. By J. A. Hammerton. Crown 8vo.
Cloth extra, gilt top.
The Romance of the Bible. The Marvellous History of the
British and Foreign Bible Society. By Charles F. Bateman.
Crown 8vo. Cloth.
Crown and Empire : A Popular Account of the Lives, Public
and Domestic, of Edward VII- and Queen Alexandra. By Alfred
E. Knight. Large Crown 8vo. 33 6 pages. Cloth boards.
Our Rulers from William the Conqueror to Edward VII.
By J. Alexander. Foolscap 410 Cloth gilt. Sixty beautiful
Illustrations. Attractively bound.
The Great Siberian Railway : What I saw on my Journey. By
Dr. F. E. Clark. Crown 8vo. 213 pages. Sixty-five First-class
Illustrations on art paper, and a Map. Handsomely bound.
Chaplains at the Front. By One of Them. Incidents in the
Life of a Chaplain during the Boer War, 1899-1900. By Owen
Spencer Watkins, Acting Wesleyan Chaplain to His Majesty s
Forces. Crown 8vo. 334 pages. Handsomely bound.
Lord Roberts of Kandahar, V.C. : The Life-Story of a Great
Soldier. By Walter Jerrold. Crown 8vo. Eight Illustrations.
Handsomely bound in cloth boards. 2s. 6d. net.
Sir Redvers H. Buller, V.C. : The Story of His Life and Cam
paigns. By Walter Jerrold, Crown 8vo. 218 pages. With
8 Illustrations. 2s. 6d net.
Catalogue of Books Published
2S. 6d. each (continued.)
Following Jesus : A Bible Picture Book for the Young. Size,
13^ by 10 inches. Contains 12 beautifully coloured Old and New
Testament Scenes, with appropriate letterpress by D.J.D.
Brought to Jesus : A Bible Picture Book for Little Readers.
Containing 12 New Testament Scenes, printed in colours. Size,
13$ by 10 inches. Handsome coloured boards.
Bible Pictures and Stories : Old and New Testament. In one
Volume. Bound in handsome cloth, with 89 full-page Illustrations
by Eminent Artists.
Light for Little Footsteps ; or, Bible Stories Illustrated. With
beautiful coloured Cover and Frontispiece. Full of Pictures. Size,
13$ by 10 inches.
Potters : their Arts and Crafts. Historical, Biographical and
Descriptive. By John C. Sparks and Walter Gandy. Crown 8vo.
Copiously Illustrated. Cloth extra.
The Story of Jesus. For Little Children. By Mrs. G. E.
Morton. New Edition. Large 8vo. 340 pages. Eight pictures
in best style of colour-work, and many other Illustrations. Hand
somely bound in cloth boards.
Victoria : Her Life and Reign. By Alfred E. Knight. Crown
8vo. 384 pages. Cloth extra, as. 6d. ; fancy cloth, gilt edges
The Home Library.
Crown 8vo. 320 pages. Handsome Cloth Covers.
True unto Death : a Story of Russian Life. By E. F. Pollard.
By Bitter Experience : A Story of the Evils of Gambling. By
Love Conquereth; or, The Mysterious Trespasser. By
White Ivory and Black, and other Stories of Adventure by Sea
and Land. By Tom Bevan, E. Harcourt Burrage, and John
The Adventures of Don Lavington ; or, In the Days of the
Press Gang. By G. Manville Fenn.
Roger the Ranger : A Story of Border Life among the Indians.
By E. F. Pollard.
Brave Brothers ; or, Young Sons of Providence. By E. M.
By S. W. Partridge < Co. 9
2S. eaCh (continued).
THE HOME LIBRARY (continued).
The Moat House ; or, Celia s Deceptions. By Eleanora H.
The White Dove of Amritzir : A Romance of Anglo-Indian
Life. By E. F. Pollard.
In Battle and Breeze : Sea Stories by G. A. Henty, G. Manville
Fenn, and J. Higginson.
Crag Island ; or The Mystery of Val Stanlock. By W. Murray
Wild Bryonie. By Jennie Chappell.
Edwin, the Boy Outlaw ; or, The Dawn of Freedom in England.
A Story of the Days of Robin Hood. By J. Frederick Hodgetts.
Manco, the Peruvian Chief. By W. H. G. Kingston. Illus
trated by Lancelot Speed.
Neta Lyall. By Flora E. Berry, Author of " In Small Corners, :
etc. Six Illustrations.
Robert Aske : A Story of the Reformation. By E. F, Pollard.
John Burleigh s Sacrifice. By Mrs. Charles Garnett. Nine
The Lion City of Africa. By Willis Boyd Allen. Sixteen
Aveline s Inheritance. By Jennie Chappell.
The Better Part. By Annie S. Swan.
Cousin Mary. By Mrs. Oliphant.
Dorothy s Training; or, Wild-flower or Weed? By Jennie
Honor : A Nineteenth-Century Heroine. By E. M. Alford.
Her Saddest Blessing. By Jennie ChappelL
The Inca s Ransom : A Story of the Conquest of Peru. By
John : A Tale of the Messiah. By K. Pearson Woods.
Jacques Hamon ; or, Sir Philip s Private Messenger. By Mary
Leaders into Unknown Lands. By A. Montefiore-Brice, F.G.S.
Lights and Shadows of Forster Square. By Rev. E. H.
The Last Earl Grahame. By Rev, J. M. Dryerre, L.L.B.
io Catalogue of Books Published
Zs. each (cuntw^d}.
THH HOME LIBRARY (continued)
The Martyr of Kolin ; A Story of the Bohemian Persecution.
By H. O. Ward.
Morning Dew-Drops : A Temperance Text Book. By Clara
Mark Desborough s Vow. By Annie S. Swan.
Norman s Nugget By J. Macdonald Oxley, B.A.
A Puritan Wooing : A Tale of the Great Awakening in New
England. By Frank Samuel Child.
Petrel Darcy ; or, In Honour Bound. By T. Corrie.
A Polar Eden ; or, The Goal of the "Dauntless." By Charlee
The Strait Gate. By Annie S. Swan.
The Spanish Maiden : A Story of Brazil. By Emma E. Horni-
Wardlaugh ; or, Workers Together. By Charlotte Murray.
The Wreck of the " Providence." By Eliza F. Pollard.
Alfred the Great : The Father of the English. By Jesse Page.
Library of Standard Works by Famous Authors.
Crown 8vo. Bound in handsome Cloth Boards. Well illustrated.
Hans Andersen s Fairy Tales. With Twelve Illustrations
by Helen Stratton.
The Old Lieutenant and His Son. By Norman McLeod.
Coral Island. By R. M. Ballantyne.
Nettie s Mission. Stories Illustrative of the Lord s Prayer.
By Alice Gray.
Home Influence : A Tale for Mothers. By Grace Aguilar.
The Gorilla Hunters. By R. M. Ballantyne.
What Katy Did. By Susan Coolidge.
Peter the Whaler. By w. H. G. Kingston.
Melbourne House. By Susan Warner.
The Lamplighter. By Miss Cummins.
Grimm s Fairy Tales. Carefully chosen from the Tales col
lected by the Brothers Grimm.
The Swiss Family Robinson : Adventures on a Desert Island.
Tom Brown s School-Days. By an Old Boy. 344 pages.
Bv S. W. Partridge & Co. u
2S. eaCh (continued).
LIBRARY OF STANDARD WORKS BY FAMOUS AUTHORS (contd
Little Women and Good Wives. By Louisa M. Alcot. 450
pages. Six Illustrations.
The Wide, Wide World. By Susan Warner. 478 pages. Six
Danesbury House. By Mrs. Henry Wood. 332 pages. Six
Stepping Heavenward. By E. Prentiss. 332 pages. Six Illus
John Halifax, Gentleman. By Mrs. Craik. 540 pages.
Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. By Daniel Defoe.
Naomi ; or, The Last Days of Jerusalem. By Mrs. Webb.
The Pilgrim s Progress. By John Bunyan. 416 pages.
Uncle Tom s Cabin. By Harriet Beecher Stowe.
Westward Ho ! By Chas. Kingsley.
Large Crown 8vo. 320 pages. Full of Illustrations. Handsomely bound
in Cloth Boards. 2s. each.
Two Great Explorers : The Live? of Fridtjof Nansen, and
Sir Henry M. Stanley.
Heroes of Land and Sea : Firemen and their Exploits, and
My Dogs in the Northland. By EgertonR. Young. 288 p ages
Many Illustrations. Crown 8vo. Cloth.
Bunyan s Folk of To-day ; or, The Modern Pilgrim s Progress.
By Rev. J. Reid Howatt. Twenty Illustrations. Crown 8vo. Cloth
Sunday Afternoons with My Scholars. By J. Attenborough.
With portrait. Crown 8vo. 290 pages. Cloth gilt.
Bible Light for Little Pilgrims. A Coloured Scripture Picture
Roll. Contains 12 beautifully coloured Old and New Testament
Scenes, with appropriate texts. Varnished cover printed in 10
colours. Mounted on Roller for hanging.
Platform, Pulpit and Desk ; or, Tools for Workers. Being
148 Outline*ddresses on all Phaser of the Temperance Movement
for all Ages and Classes. By W. N. Edwards, F.C.S. With an
Introductionby Canon Barker. Crown 8vo. 300 pages.
Bible Picture Roll. Containing a large Engraving of a Scripture
Subject, with letterpress, for each day in the month. Mounted on
Roller for hanging.
Love, Courtship, and Marriage. By Rev. F. B. Meyer, B.A.
Crown 8vo. 152 pages, Embellished cloth cover. 2s. net. Full
gilt edges, 2s, 6d. net.
12 Catalogue of Books Published
Is. 6d. each.
Partridge } s Eigbteenpenny Series
OF CHARMING STORIES FOR HOLIDAY AND FIRESIDE READING.
Crown 8vo. 160 pages. Well Illustrated and Attractively Bound.
A String of Pearls. By E. F. Pollard.
Elsie Macgregor ; or, Margaret s Little Lass. By Ramsay Guthrie.
The Lady of the Chine. By M. S. Haycraft.
Carola s Secret. By Ethel F. Heddle.
The Home of His Fathers. By Lillias Campbell Davidson.
A Great Patience. By L. Moberley.
In the Bonds of Silence. By J. L. Hornibrook.
A Late Repentance. By Hannah B. Mackenzie.
Shepherds and Sheep. By E. Stuart- Langford.
The Golden Doors. By M. S. Haycraft.
A Noble Champion. By David Hobbs.
T/ie Up-to-date Library.
Of Thick Crown 8vo. Volumes. 320 pages. Many Illustrations.
Mick Tracy, the Irish Scripture Reader. By the Author of
" Tim Doolan."
Grace Ashleigh. By Mary D. R. Boyd.
Without a Thought ; or, Dora s Discipline. By Jennie
Edith Oswald ; or, Living for Others. By Jane M. Kippen.
A Bunch of Cherries. By J. W. Kirton.
A Village Story. By Mrs. G. E. Morton.
The Eagle Cliff. By R. M. Ballantyne.
More Precious than Gold. By Jennie Chappell.
The Slave Raiders of Zanzibar, By E. Harcourt Burrage.
Ester Ried. By Pansy.
Avice : a Story of Imperial Rome. By E. F. Pollard.
The King s Daughter. By Pansy.
The Foster Brothers ; or, Foreshadowed. By Mrs. Morton.
The Household Angel. By Madeline Leslie.
The Green Mountain Boys : a Story of the American War
Independence. By E. F. Pollard.
A Way in the Wilderness. By Maggie Swan,
Miss Elizabeth s Niece. By M. S. Haycraft.
The Man of the House. By " Pansy."
By S. W. Partridge & Co. 13
IS, 6d, eaCh (continued}.
THE UP-TO-DATE LIBRARY (continued).
Olive Chauncey s Trust : a Story of Life s Turning Points.
By Mrs. E. R. Pitman.
Whither Bound ? a Story of Two Lost Boys. By Owen Landor.
Three People. By " Pansy."
Chrissy s Endeavour. By " Pansy."
The Young Moose Hunters. By C. A. Stephens.
Eaglehurst Towers. By Emma Marshall.
Chilgoopie the Glad : a Story of Korea and her Children. By
Jean Perry. With eight Illustrations on art paper, and bound in
The Man in Grey ; or, More about Korea. By Jean Perry.
Crown 8vo. Illustrated. Cloth boards.
More Nails for Busy Workers. By C. Edwards, Author of " A
Box of Nails for Busy Christian Workers," etc. Crown 8vo. 196
pages. Cloth boards.
Queen Alexandra : the Nation s Pride. By Mrs. C. N.
Williamson. Crown 8vo. Tastefully bound, is. 6d. net.
King and Emperor : the Life- History of Edward VII. By
Arthur Mee. Crown 8vo. Cloth boards, is. 6d. net.
William McKinley : Private and President. By Thos. Cox
Meech. Crown 8vo. 160 pages, with Portrait, is. 6d. net.
Studies of the Man Christ Jesus. His Character, His Spirit,
Himself. By R. E. Speer. Cloth, gilt top. is. 6d. net.
Studies of the Man Paul. By Robert E. Speer. Long 8vo.
304 pages. Cloth gilt. is. 6d. net.
The Angel and the Demon ; and other Stories. ByE.Thorney-
croft Fowler. Cloth gilt. Eight Illustrations.
A Measuring Eye. By E. Stuart- Langford. Illustrated. Cloth
Wellington : the Record of a Great Military Career. By A. E.
Knight. Crown 8vo. Cloth gilt, with Portrait, is 6d. net.
Hector Macdonald ; or, The Private who became a General. By
T. F G Coates Crown 8vo. Cloth gilt, with Portrait, is. 6d. net.
Baden-Powell : The Hero of Mafeking. By W. Francis Aitken.
Crown 8vo. Cloth gilt, with Portrait, is. 6d. net.
Every-day Life in South Africa. By E. E. K. Lowndes. Crown
8vo. Illustrated. Cloth boards, is. 6d. net.
The Royal Life. By Rev. J. C. Carlile. Crown 8vo. 128 pages.
Insects : Foes and Friends. By W. Egmont Kirby, M.D., F.L.S.
32 pages of Coloured Illustrations. Cloth boards.
14 Catalogue of Books Published
Is. 6d. each
The British Boys Library.
Fully Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 168 tages. Cloth extra.
The Adventures of Ji. By G. E. Farrow, Author of " The
Missionary Heroes : Stories of Heroism on the Missionary Field,
By C. D. Michael.
Andrew Bennett s Harvest ; or, The Shadow of God s Provi
dence. By Lydia Phillips.
Brown Al ; or, A Stolen Holiday. By E. M. Stooke.
The Pigeons Cave : A Story of Great Orme s Head in 1806.
By J. S. Fletcher.
Robin the Rebel. By H. Louisa Bedford.
Runaway Rollo. By E. M. Stooke.
Success : Chats about Boys who have Won it. By C. D.
Well Done ! Stories of Brave Endeavour. Edited by C. D.
The Wonder Seekers. By Henry J. Barker, M.A.
Little Soldiers. By Kate L. Mackley.
Will ; or, That Boy from the Union. By Lydia Phillips.
Noble Deeds : Stories of Peril and Heroism. Edited by C. D.
Armour Bright : The Story of a Boy s Battles. By Lucy
Ben : A Story of Life s Byways. By Lydia Phillips.
Major Brown ; or, Whether White or Black, a Man. By Edith
Jack. A Story of a Scapegrace. By E. M. Bryant.
Hubert Ellerdale : A Tale of the Days of Wicliffe, By W.
By S. W. Partridge & Co. 15
IS. 6d, eaCh (continued).
The British Girls Library.
Fully Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 160 pages. Cloth extra.
The Mystery Baby ; or, Patsy at Fellside. By Alice M. Page.
Zillah, the Little Dancing Girl. By Mrs. Hugh St. Leger.
Patsie s Bricks. By L. S. Mead.
Salome s Burden ; or, The Shadow on the Homes. By Eleanora
Heroines : True Tales of Brave Women. By C. D. Michael.
Granny s Girls. By M. B. Manwell.
Mousey ; or, Cousin Robert s Treasure. By Eleanora H.
Marigold s Fancies. By L. E. Tiddeman.
" Our Phyllis." By M. S. Haycraft.
The Lady of Greyham ; or, Low in a Low Place. By Emma
The Gipsy Queen. By Emrna Leslie.
Kathleen ; or, A Maiden s Influence. By Julia Hack.
The Rajah s Daughter; or, The Half-Moon Girl. By Bessie
In Self-Defence. By Julia Hack.
Regia; or, Her Little Kingdom. By E. M. Waterworth and
Una s Marriage. By Mrs. Haycraft.
Tephi : An Armenian Romance. By Cecilia M. Blake.
Queen of the Isles. By Jessie M. E. Saxby.
Size 9 by 7 inches. Coloured and numerous other Illustrations. Handsome
Coloured Cover, Paper Boards with Cloth Back.
Happy and Gay : Pictures and Stones for Every Day. By
D. J. D.
Pleasures and Joys for Girls and Boys. By D. J. D.
Anecdotes of Animals and Birds. By Uncle John.
Stories of Animal Sagacity. By D. J. D.
1 6 Catalogue of Books Published
IS. 6d. each (continued).
" The World s Wonders " Series.
Crown 8vo. 160 pages. Copiously Illustrated. Handsome Cloth Covers.
The Conquest of the Air : The Romance of Aerial Navigation.
By John Alexander.
Surgeons and their Wonderful Discoveries. By F. M.
The Life-Boat : Its History and Heroes. By F. M. Holmes.
Firemen and their Exploits. With an Account of Fire Brigades
and Appliances. By F. M. Holmes.
The Romance of the Savings Banks. By Archibald G
The Romance of Glass Making. A Sketch of the History of
Ornamental Glass. By W. Gandy.
The Romance of the Post-Office : Its Inception and Won
drous Development. By Archibald G. Bowie.
Marvels of Metals. By F. M. Holmes.
Triumphs of the Printing Press. By Walter Jerrold.
Electricians and their Marvels. By Waiter Jerrold.
Musicians and their Compositions. By J. R. Griffiths.
Naturalists and their Investigations. By George Day, F.R.M.S.
A New Series of Devotional Books by Standard Authors. Well printed on
good paper. Size 6% by 4\ inches. Beautifully bound in
Cloth Boards. 1s. 6d. each, NET.
The Imitation of Christ. By Thomas Kempis.
The Holy War. By John Bunyan.
Letters on the Simple Life. By the Queen of Roumania, Marie
Corelli, Madame Sarah Grand, " John Oliver Hobbes," Sir A.
Conan Doyle, The Bishop of London, Canon Hensley Henson,
Sir J. Crichton Browne, Rev. S. Baring-Gould, Dr Robertson
Nicoll, etc. Crown 8vo. 160 pages. With Autographs of con
tributors in fac-sirnile Imitation Linen, is. net. Cloth boards,
is. 6d. net. (Not illustrated.)
By S. W. Partridge & Co. 21
One Shilling Reward Books.
Fully Illustrated. Crown 8vo. Cloth extra.
True Stories of Brave Deeds ; or, What Boys and Girls can
Do. By Mabel Bowler.
The Mystery of Marnie. By Jennie Chappell.
Gipsy Kit ; or, The Man with the Tattooed Face. By Robert
Dick s Desertion ; A Boy s Adventures in Canadian Forests
By Marjorie L. C. Pickthall.
The Wild Swans ; or, The Adventure of Rowland Cleeve. By
Mary C. Rowsell.
George & Co. ; or, The Choristers of St. Anselm s. By Spencer
Fei n Dacre : A Minster Yard Story. By Ethel Ruth Boddy.
Caravan Cruises : Five Children in a Caravan not to mention
Old Dobbin. By Phil Ludlow.
Other Pets and their Wild Cousins. By Rev. J. Isabell, F.E.S.
Little Chris the Castaway. By F. Spenser.
The Children of the Priory. By J. L. Hornibrook.
Through Sorrow and Joy ; or, The Story of an English Bible in
Reformation Times. By M. A. R.
Tom and the Enemy. By Clive R. Fenn.
Ruth s Roses ; or, What Some Girls Did. By Laura A. Barter-
In Paths of Peril : A Boy s Adventures in Nova Scotia. By
J. Macdonald Oxley.
Pets and their Wild Cousins : New and True Stories of
Animals. By Rev. J. Isabell, F.E.S.
A Brother s Need. By L. S. Mead. Crown 8vo. 128 pages.
Sunshine and Snow. By Harold Bindloss.
Donalblane of Darien. By J. Macdonald Oxley.
Crown Jewels. By Heather Grey.
At the Bend of the Creek. By E. Gertrude and Annie A. Hart.
All Play and No Work. By Harold Avery.
Bernard or Ben ? By Jennie Chappell.
Always Happy ; or, The Story of Helen Keller. By Jennie
22 Catalogue of Books Published
IS. each (continued).
ONE SHILLING REWARD BOOKS (continued).
Birdie and her Dog, and other Stories of Canine Sagacity. By
Miss Phillips (Mrs. H. B. Looker).
Bessie Drew ; or, The Odd Little Girl. By Amy Manifold.
Cola Monti ; or, The Story of a Genius. By Mrs. Craik, Author
of "John Halifax, Gentleman."
The Children of Cherryholme. By M. S. Haycraft.
The Fatal Nugget. By E. Harcourt Burrage.
Frank Burleigh ; or, Chosen to be a Soldier. By Lydia
Harold ; or, Two Died for Me. By Laura A. Barter.
Indian Life in the Great North-West. By Egerton R. Young,
Missionary to the North American Indian Tribes.
Jack the Conqueror ; or Difficulties Overcome. By the
Author of " Dick and his Donkey."
Little Bunch s Charge ; or, True to Trust. By Nellie Corn
Lost in the Backwoods. By Edith C. Kenyon.
The Little Woodman and his Dog Caesar. By Mrs. Sher
Our Den. By E. M. Waterworth.
Paul the Courageous. By Mabel Quiller-Couch.
Roy s Sister; or, His Way and Hers. By M. B. Manwell.
Raymond s Rival ; or, Which will Win ? By Jennie Chappell.
Sweet Nancy. By L. T. Meade.
Who was the Culprit? By Jennie Chappell.
Is. each net.
Partridge s Popular Reciter. Old Favourites and New. 208
pages. Crown 8vo. Imitation Cloth, is. net ; Cloth boards,
is. 6d. net.
Partridge s Humorous Reciter (uniform with Partridge s Popular
Reciter), Imitation Cloth, is. net; Cloth boards, is. 6d. net.
By S. W. Partridge & Co. 23
IS. eaCh (continued).
Cheap Reprints of Popular Booty for the Toung.
Crown 8vo. 160 pages. Illustrated. Cloth Boards, 1s. each.
Heroes All ! A Book of Brave Deeds. By C. D. Michael.
The Old Red Schoolhouse. By Frances H. Wood.
Christabel s Influence. By J. Goldsmith Cooper.
Deeds of Daring ; or, Stories of Heroism in Everyday Life
By C. D. Michael.
Everybody s Friend ; or, Hilda Danver s Influence. By Evelyn
The Bell Buoy ; or, The Story of a Mysterious Key. By F. M
Saph s Foster-Bairn. By Rev. A. Colbeck.
Vic : A Book of Animal Stories. By Alfred C. Fryer, Ph.D.,
In Friendship s Name. By Lydia Phillips.
Nella ; or, Not my Own. By Jessie Goldsmith Cooper.
Blossom and Blight. By M. A. Paull.
Aileen. By Laura A. Barter- Snow.
Satisfied. By Catherine Trowbridge.
Ted s Trust; or, Aunt Elmerley s Umbrella. By Jennie
A Candle Lighted by the Lord. By Mrs. E. Ross.
Alice Western s Blessing. By Ruth Lamb.
Tamsin Rosewarne and Her Burdens: A Tale of Cornish
Life. By Nellie Cornwall.
Raymond and Bertha : A Story of True Nobility. By Lydia
Gerald s Dilemma. By Emma Leslie.
Fine Gold ; or, Ravenswood Courtney. By Emma Marshall.
Marigold. By Mrs. L. T. Meade.
Jack s Heroism. By Edith C. Kenyon.
The Lads of Kingston. By James Capes Story.
Her Two Sons : A Story for Young Men and Maidens. By
Mrs. Charles Garnett.
Rag and Tag : By Mrs. E. J. Whittaker.
Through Life s Shadows. By Eliza F. Pollard.
24 Catalogue of Books Published
IS. 63.CF1 (continued.)
CHEAP REPRINTS OF POPULAR BOOKS FOR THE YOUNG
The Little Princess of Tower Hill. By L. T. Meade.
Clovie and Madge. By Mrs. G. S. Reaney.
Ellerslie House: A Book for Boys. By Emma Leslie.
Like a Little Candle ; or Bertrand s Influence. By Mrs.
Louie s Married Life. By Sarah Doudney.
The Dairyman s Daughter. By Legh Richmond.
Bible Wonders. By Rev. Dr. Newton.
The Pilgrim s Progress. By John Bunyan. 416 pages. Eight
coloured and 46 other Illustrations.
Our Duty to Animals. By Mrs. C. Bray.
Onward" Temperance Library.
Crown 8vo. Illustrated. Cloth extra. Is. each.
A Western Waif. By Old Cornish.
Addy s Two Lives. By Mrs. Ruth B. Yates.
John Dudley s Secret; or, The Gambler s Daughter. By
Suspected ; or, Under a Cloud. By A. J. Glasspool.
Whispers to those who wish to Enjoy a Happy Life. By
Rev. Benj. Smith.
Snatched from Death. By Alfred J. Glasspool.
Everyone s Library.
A re-issue of Standard Works in a cheap form, containing from 320
to 500 pages, printed in the best style; with Illustrations on art paper,
and tastefully bound in Cloth Boards. 1s. each.
The Coral Island. By R. M. Ballantyne.
Hans Andersen s Fairy Tales.
John Halifax, Gentleman. By Mrs. Craik.
Little Women and Good Wives. By Louisa M. Alcott,
Tom Brown s Schooldays. By an Old Boy.
The Wide, Wide World. By Susan Warner.
Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. By Daniel Defoe.
Uncle Tom s Cabin. By H. B. Stowe.
The Old Lieutenant and His Son. By Norman McLeod.
By S. W. Partridge & Co. 25
IS. each (continued).
for Christian Workers.
Large Crown 16mo. 128 pages. Chastely bound in Cloth Boards.
Deeper Yet : Meditations for the Quiet Hour. By Clarence E.
The Master s Messages to Women. By Charlotte Skinner.
Royal and Loyal : Thoughts on the Twofold Aspects of the
Christian Life. By Rev. VV. H. Griffith-Thomas.
Thoroughness : Talks to Young Men. By Thain Davidson
Some Secrets of Christian Living. By Rev. F. B. Meyer.
The Overcoming Life. By Rev. E. W. Moore.
Marks of the Master. By Charlotte Skinner.
Some Deeper Things. By Rev. F. B. Meyer.
Steps to the Blessed Life. By Rev. F. B. Meyer.
Daybreak in the Soul. By Rev. E. W. Moore.
The Temptation of Christ By C. Arnold Healing, M.A.
Keynotes to the Happy Life. By Charlotte Skinner.
For Love s Sake. By Charlotte Skinner.
Novelties, and How to Make them : Hints and Helps
in providing occupation for Children s Classes. Compiled by
Mildred Duff. Full of illustrations. Cloth boards, is.
Ingatherings : A Dainty Book of Beautiful Thoughts. Compiled
by E. Agar. Cloth boards, is. net. (Paper covers, 6d. net.)
Golden Words for Every Day. By M. Jennie Street. A
prettily illustrated Text Book for the Young.
The Armour of Life. A Little Book of Friendly Counsel.
Edited by J. A. Hammerton. Foolscap 8vo. Ninety-six pages.
The New Cookery of Unproprietary Foods. By Eustace
Miles, M.A. 192 pages, is. net,
The Child s Book of Health. A Series of Illustrated and Easy
Lessons for Children and Parents on taking care of ourselves. i3y
Walter N. Edwards, F.C.S. is. net.
Hiram Golfs Religion. By George H. Hepworth, D.D., Author
of " The Life Beyond," etc. 128 pages. Cloth gilt.
Eon the Good ; and other Verses. By Charlotte Murray.
Uncrowned Queens. By Charlotte Skinner. Small 8vo. 112
Victoria: the Well-Beloved. (1819-1901.) By W. Francis
Aitken. Eight Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 152 pages. Cloth
26 Catalogue of Books Published
IS. Cadi (continued).
New Series of One Shilling Picture
Size 10% by 8 inches. 96 pages. Coloured Frontispiece and numerous other
illustrations. Handsomely bound in Paper Boards, covers printed in 10
colours and varnished.
A Trip to Storyland. By R. V.
Holiday Hours in Animal Land. By Uncle Harry.
Animal Antics ! By the Author of " In Animal Land with Louis
Happy Days. By R. V.
Old Testament Heroes. By Mildred Duff.
Feed My Lambs. Fifty-two Bible Stones and Pictures. By the
Author of " The Friends of Jesus."
Jesus the Good Shepherd. A Book of Bible Pictures in
colours, with suitable letterpress.
Tell Me a Tale ! A Picture Story Book for Little Children.
Little Snow-Shoes Picture Book. By R. V.
In Animal Land with Louis Wain. Coloured Frontispiece
and many other of Louis Wain s striking animal pictures for the
Two Little Bears at School. By J. D.
Merry and Free. Pictures and Stories for our Little Ones. By
Bible Pictures and Stories : Old Testament. By D. J. D.
Bible Pictures and Stories: New Testament. By James
Weston and D. J D.
Pussies and Puppies. By Louis Wain.
The Life of Jesus. By Mildred Duff. 112 pages.
Gentle Jesus : A Book of Bible Pictures in colour. Size, u by
Commendations from all parts of the world have reached
Messrs. S. W. Partridge and Co. upon the excellence of their
Picture Books. The reading matter is high-toned, helpful, and
amusing, exactly adapted to the requirements of young folks;
while the Illustrations are by first-class artists, and the paper is
thick and durable. Bound in attractive coloured covers, they
form a unique series.
By S. W. Partridge & Co. 27
Ninepenny Series of Illustrated Books.
96 pages. Small Crown 8vo. Illustrated. Handsome Cloth Covers.
Kibble & Co. By Jennie Chappell.
Marjory ; or, What Would Jesus Do ? By Laura A. Barter- Snow.
Brave Bertie. By Edith C. Kenyon.
The Little Slave Girl. By Eileen Douglas.
Marjorie s Enemy : A Story of the Civil War of 1644. By Mrs.
Lady Betty s Twins. By E. M. Waterworth.
A Venturesome Voyage. By F. Scarlett Potter.
Out of the Straight ; or, The Boy who Failed and the Boy
who Succeeded, By Noel Hope.
Bob and Bob s Baby. By Mary E. Lester.
Robin s Golden Deed. By Ruby Lynn.
The Little Captain : A Temperance Tale. By Lynde Palmer.
The Runaway Twins ; or, The Terrible Guardian. By Irene
Grandmother s Child. By Annie S. Swan.
Dorothy s Trust. By Adela Frances Mount.
Grannie s Treasures ; and how they helped her. By L. E.
His Majesty s Beggars. By Mary E. Ropes.
Love s Golden Key. By Mary E. Lester.
Faithful Friends. By C. A. Mercer.
Only Roy. By E. M. Waterworth and Jennie Chappell.
Aunt Armstrong s Money. By Jennie Chappell.
The Babes in the Basket ; or, Daph and Her Charge.
Bel s Baby. By Mary E. Ropes,
Birdie s Benefits ; or, A Little Child Shall Lead Them. By
Edith Ruth Boddy.
Carol s Gift; or, "What Time I am Afraid I will Trust in
Thee." By Jennie Chappell.
Cripple George ; or, God has a Plan for Every Man. A Tern-
perance Story. By John W. Kneeshaw.
Cared For ; or, The Orphan Wanderers. By Mrs. C E. Bowen
A Flight with the Swallows. By Emma Marshall.
28 Catalogue of Books Published
9d. eaCh (continued.}
NINEPENNY SERIES OF ILLUSTRATED BOOKS (continued).
The Five Cousins. By Emma Leslie.
Foolish Chrissy ; or, Discontent and its Consequences. By
For Lucy s Sake. By Annie S. Swan.
Giddie Garland ; or, The Three Mirrors. By Jennie Chappell.
How a Farthing made a Fortune ; or, Honesty is the Best
Policy. By Mrs. C. E. Bowen.
How Paul s Penny became a Pound. By Mrs. Bowen.
How Peter s Pound became a Penny. By the same Author
John Blessington s Enemy: A Story of Life in South Africa.
By E. Harcourt Burrage.
John Oriel s Start in Life. By Mary Howitt.
The Man of the Family. By Jennie Chappell.
Mattie s Home ; or, The Little Match-girl and her Friends.
Nan ; or, The Power of Love. By Eliza F. Pollard.
Phil s Frolic. By F. Scarlett Potter.
Paul : A Little Mediator. By Maude M. Butler.
Rob and I ; or, By Courage and Faith, By C. A. Mercer.
A Sailor s Lass. By Emma Leslie.
Una Bruce s Troubles. By Alice Price.
Won from the Sea. By E. C. Phillips (Mrs. H. B. Looker).
The Marigold Series.
An unequalled, series of Standard Stories, printed on good laid paper.
Imperial Svo. 128 pages. Illustrated covers with vignetted design
printed in eight colours. Price 6d. each net.
PRIDE AND PREJUDICE. By i THE WIDE, WIDE WORLD.
FROM JEST TO EARNEST. By
E. P. Roe.
By Susan Warner.
By S. W. Partridge & Co. 29
6d. each (continued}.
New Series of Sixpenny Picture Boofo.
Crown 4to. With Coloured Frontispiece and many other Illustrations.
Handsomely Bound in Paper Boards, with cover printed in ten colours.
Off to Toyland ! By Uncle Jack.
Going A-Sailing i By J. D.
Follow the Flag. By J. D.
Dollie Dimple. By J. D.
Old Mother Bunnie ! A Picture Story Book for Laddies and
Lassies. By J. D.
Off We Go ! Pictures and Stories for Boys and Girls. By R. V.
Sweet Stories Re-Told : A Bible Picture Book for Young Folks.
Little Snowdrop s Bible Picture Book.
March Away ! Pictures and Stories for Every Day.
After the Ball : Pictures and Stories for One and All.
Mother s Sunday ABC: A Little Book of Bible Pictures,
which can be coloured by hand.
The " Red Dave " Series.
New and, Enlarged Edition. Handsomely bound in Cloth Boards.
WILFUL JACK. By M. I. Hurrell.
WILLIE THE WAIF. By Minie
" ROAST POTATOES ! " A Temper
ance Story. By Rev. S. N. Sedg-
His CAPTAIN. By Constancia A LITTLE TOWN MOUSE.
Sergeant. THE LITTLE GOVERNESS.
IHA MINUTE!" By KeithMar- p Dppy . DoG TALS .
UNCLE Jo s OLD COAT. By MOTHER S BOY.
Eleanora H. Stooke. A GREAT MISTAKE,
THE COST OF A PROMISE. By FROM HAND TO HAND.
; or. What can I
do? By J. S. Woodhouse. BUY YOUR OWN CHERRIES.
ROY CARPENTER S LESSON. By LEFT IN CHARGE, and other
GERALD S GUARDIAN. By Charles A THREEFOLD PROMISE.
Herbert. THE FOUR YOUNG MUSICIANS.
WHERE A QUEEN ONCE DWELT. Two LITTLE GIRLS AND WHAT
By Jetta Vogel. They Did.
Catalogue of Books Published
6d. each (continued).
RED DAVE" SERIES (continued}.
A SUNDAY TRIP AND WHAT CAME
of it. By E. J . Romanes.
LITTLE TIM AND HIS PICTURE.
By Beatrice Way.
MIDGE. By L. E. Tiddeman.
THE CONJURER S WAND. By
Henrietta S. Streatfeild.
BENJAMIN S NEW BOY.
ENEMIES : a Tale for Little Lads
CHERRY TREE PLACE.
A TALE OF FOUR FOXES.
JOE AND SALLY : or, A Good Deed
and its Fruits.
THE ISLAND HOME.
CHRISSY S TREASURE.
LOST IN THE SNOW.
OWEN S FORTUNE.
RED DAVE ; or, What Wilt Thou
have Me to Do ?
DICK AND His DONKEY.
COME HOME, MOTHER.
Cheap "Pansy" Series.
Imperial 8vo. 64 pages. Many Illustrations. Cover printed in five colours.
THE STRAIT GATE. By Annie S.
MARK DESBOROUGH S Vow. By
Annie S. Swan.
HER SADDEST BLESSING.
Miss PRISCILLA HUNTER, and
Avic A Story of Imperial Rome.
LINKS IN REBECCA S LIFE.
FROM DIFFERENT STANDPOINTS.
CHRISSIB S CHRISTMAS
FOCR GIRLS AT
ESTER RIED YET SPEAKING.
ECHOING AND RE-ECHOING.
TIP LEWIS AND His LAMP.
THE KING S DAUGHTER.
WISE TO WIN ; or, The Master
A NEW GRAFT ON THE FAMILY
THE MAN OF THE HOUSE.
By S. W. Partridge & Co.
4d. each (continued).
The Young Folds Library
Of Cloth-bound Books. With Coloured Frontispiece. 64 pages.
Well Illustrated. Handsome Cloth Covers.
THE LITTLE WOODMAN.
JACKO THE MONKEY, and other
LITTLE DAN, THE ORANGE BOY.
RONALD S REASON.
FROM SHADOW TO SUNSHINE.
A BRIGHT IDEA.
SYBIL AND HER LIVE SNOWBALL.
THE CHURCH MOUSE.
A TROUBLESOME TRIO.
PERRY S PILGRIMAGE.
NITA ; cr, Among the Brigands.
New ^Pretty " Gift-Book " Series.
With Beautiful Coloured Frontispiece, and many other Illustrations.
Paper Boards, Cover printed in eight Colours and Varnished, 3d. each.
Size 6 by 5 inches.
JACK AND JILL S PICTURE BOOK.
LADY - BIRD S PICTURES AND
PLAYTIME JOYS FOR GIRLS AND
DOLLY S PICTURE BOOK.
BY THE SEA.
TOBY AND KIT S ANIMAL BOOK.
PETS" AND " PICKLES."
OUR LITTLE PETS ALPHABET.
BIBLE STORIES OLD TESTAMENT.
BIBLE STORIES NEWTESTAMENT
Paternoster Series of Popular Stories.
An entirely New Series of Books, Medium
Cover daintily printed in two colours.
A CANDLE LIGHTED BY THE LORD.
By Mrs. Ross.
GRANDMOTHER S CHILD. By
Annie S. Swan.
THE BABES IN THE BASKET ; or,
Daph and her Charge.
JENNY S GERANIUM; or, The Prize
Flower of a London Court
THE LITTLE PRINCESS OF TOWER
Hill. ByL. T. Meade.
THE GOLD THREAD. By Norman
Macleod, D D.
8vo. in size, 32 paqes, fully illustrated.
Id. each. Titles as follows :
THROUGH SORROW AND JOY. B>
M. A. R.
THE LITTLE WOODMAN AND HIS
Dog Caesar. By Mrs. Sherwood.
GKORGE. By j. W.
ROB AND I. By C. A. Mercer.
DICK AND HIS DONKEY. By Mrs.
THE LIGHT OF THE GOSPEL.
32 S. W. Partridge & Co. s Catalogue.
Partridge s Pictorial Magazines.
"A word of emphatic praise should be given to the old-established and excellent
magazines of Messrs. Partridge and Co. They ought to hold their own against the
great competition, for they are eminently sound, healthy, and interesting,"
" It would be difficult to surpass these Magazines. All have marched with the times."
" There are no more attractive Annual Volumes than those Issued by S. W. PARTRIDGE
and Co." THE CHRISTIAN.
The British Workman. Contains popular Articles and Stories
on Temperance, Thrift, etc., and short biographies of eminent
Self-made Men ; also interesting information of special value
to the sons of toil. id. Monthly.
The Yearly Volume, 144 pages full of illustrations, coloured paper boards,
Is. 6d. ; cloth, 2s. 6d.
The Family Friend. A beautifully Illustrated Magazine for the
Home Circle, with Serial and Short Stories by popular
Authors, Helpful Articles, Hints on Dressmaking, etc.
The Yearly Volume, In coloured paper boards and cloth back, Is. 8d. ;
cloth, 2s. ; gilt edges, 2s. 8d.
The Friendly Visitor. An Illustrated Magazine for the people,
full of entertaining reading with sound religious teaching in
the form of story, article, and poem. Printed in good type
and fully illustrated. Just the paper for the aged.
The Yearly Volume, coloured paper boards and cloth back, Is. 6d. ; cloth,
2s. ; gilt edges, 2s. 6d.
The Children s Friend. Charming Stories, interesting Articles,
Indoor Recreations, beautiful Pictures, Puzzles, Prize Com
petitions, etc. id. Montnly.
The Yearly Volume, coloured paper boards, with cloth back and excellent
coloured trontispiece, Is. 6d. ; cloth, 2s. ; gilt edges, 2s. 6d,
The Infants Magazine. No other periodical can be compared
with the Infants Magazine tor freshness, brightness, and
interest. Full of bright pictures and pleasant reading to
delight the little ones. id. Monthly.
The Yearly Volume, coloured paper board?, with cloth back and beautifully
coloured frontispiece, Is. 6d- ; cloth, 2s. ; gilt edges, 2s. 6d.
The Band of Hope Review. The Leading Temperance
Periodical for the Young, containing Serial and Short Stories,
Concerted Recitations, Prize Competitions. Should be in
the hands of all Members of Bands of Hope. |d. Monthly.
The Yearly Volume coloured paper boards Is.; cloth boards, ll. fid.